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Full text of "Art recreations; being a complete guide to pencil drawing, oil painting, water-color painting, crayon drawing and painting, painting on ground glass, Grecian painting, antique painting, oriental painting, sign painting, theorem painting, ferneries, moss work, papier mache, cone work, feather flowers, potichomanie, leather work, hair work, taxidermy, gilding and bronzing, plaster work, decalcomanie, wax work, shell work, magic lantern, paper flowers, imitation of pearl, the aquqrium, sealing-wax painting, panorama painting, coloring photographs, enamel painting, etc."

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NYPL RESEARCH LIBRARIES 



3 3433 08191238 2 




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3- M f\ 



Art RECREATIONS: 



A COMPLETE GUIDE 



Fsneil Drawing, 


Cone Work, 


Imitation of Pearl, 


Oil Painting, 


Feather Flowers, 


The Aq,uarinm, 


Wat3r-Co::r Painting, 


Potishomanie, 


Sealing- Wax Painting, 


Crayon Drawing and Painting, 


Leather Work, 


Panorama Painting, 


Fainting on Ground Glass, 


Hair Work, 


Coloring Photographs, 


Grecian Pa-.nting, 


Taxidermy, 


Enamel Painting, 


Antique Pa.nting, 


Gilding and Bronzing, 


Diaphanie, 


Oriental Painting, 


Plaster Work, 


Charcoal Drawing, two kinds, 


Sign Painting, 


Decalcomanie, 


Limneography, 


Theorem Painting, 


Wax Work, 


Heraldry, 


Ferneries, 


Shell Work, 


Flower Painting, four kinds, 


Hoss Work, 


Ifagic Lantern, 


Sorrento- Wood Carving, 


Papier Uache, 


Paper Flowers, 


Illuminating, &c. 



.-r^ BY -'^ 

Mme. L. B. URBINO, Prof. HENRY DAY, 

• AND OTHERS. 



t 



IVITH VALUABLE RECEIPTS FOR PREPARING MATERIALS. 



Splendidly UlustrateJ. 



BOSTON : 
SHEPARD AND 

1873- 

EJl-Ui 



GILL. 



THE NEW YORK 
PUBLIC LIBRARY 

737192A 

ASTOR, LENOX AJ^D 

TILDEW FOUNOATXON3 

R 1934 L 



Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 1859, uy 

J. E. TILTON & COMPANY, 

In the Clerk's Office of the District Court for the District of Massachusetts. 



Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 1872, 

By SHEPARD & GILL, 

In the Office of the Librarian of Congress at Washington. 



f- *- t c » * c . 



INTRODUCTORY NOTICE. 



jN presenting this volume to the 
public, the publishers would 
state that it has its origin in 
the fact that during the time 
in which they have been en- 
gaged in issuing pictures and 
dealing in artists' materials, they have 
been in the constant receipt of letters, 
from all parts of the country, asking 
for information in various departments of ornamental 
work It has always given them pleasure to answer 
such inquiries, and they will cheerfully in the future 
furnish such information as may be called for. But 
with an increasing business, and consequently more 
extended correspondence, they have found it impos- 
sible to meet the wants of their patrons to the ex- 
tent they would wish, and therefore have prepared 
1* (5) 




6 INTRODUCTORY NOTICE. 

this volume, which they think will be found, upon 
examination, to contain a great amount of valuable 
and original matter, in almost every department of 
ornamental work ; and they hope the book will meet 
with the approbation of their patrons and the public 
generally, feeling assured that long experience and 
an honest desire to make a valuable and instructive 
book for teachers, amateur artists, and the family 
circle, will gain for it a pleasing success. 

We are indebted for many of these receipts and 
valuable information to Professor Henry Day, a 
successful teacher for the past twelve years in this 
country, and formerly in England, Ireland, and 
Scotland. 



NOTE TO NEW EDITION. 

In issuing a new edition of this book, we feel gratified in being able to say- 
that " Art Recreations " has met with universal approval and a success 
beyond the most sanguine hopes of the publishers. We have, since its pub- 
lication, received and introduced some new things, a natural result to our 
continued labors, extending business, and constant intercourse with artists 
and teachers. Nearly all the matter from page 282 on to the end of the book 
is new. 



CONTENTS 



Page. 

Autumn Leaves, Treatment of 301 

Anglo-Japanese Work ... .... 229 

Antique Painting 187 

Antique Varnish, To make 341 

Aquarium, The 327 

Backgrounds, Painting 145 

Broken-Cake Colors, To make moist colors of . . .316 

Botanical Specimens, To preserve 281 

Bronzing 198 

Brushes, To clean ......... 322 

Bronze Painting 199 

Bronze Stencilling 318 

Brushes, Choice of 131 

Cabinet Work, To cleanse 343 

Cabinet Varnish, To make 341 

Chinese Raising 203 

Chess Table Pattern, To paint 1 74 

•Clear Varnish 326 

Colors, List of 124-156 

Colors, Mixing for Grecian Painting 90 

Colors, Mixing fur Oriental Painting 171 

(") 



8 CONTENTS. 

Colored Engravings, To varnish 342 

Charcoal Drawing . . . 291 

Cone Work • • -266 

Crayon Drawing 65, 69 

Decalcomanie 282 

Diaphanie 285 

Draperies, Coloring 141 

Drawing, Elements of 13 

Drawing, Perspective 31, 41 

Drawing, Crayon 65, 69 

Driving, Monochromatic 67 

Designers, Hints for 293 

Ebony Inlaying, Imitation of 320 

Enamel Painting 1^* 

Engravings, To stretch, for framing 343 

Engravings, To varnish colored 342 

Engravings, To use upon Glass 319 

Engravings, Varnish for 326 

Feather Flowers 264 

Fernery for a short Purse 335 

Flesh Tints 136 

Foliage "*' 

Flower Painting on Tinted Paper 300 

Flov.'cr Painting, Permanent • • 299 

Flower Painting in Water Colors 105 

Gilding Signs 186 

Gilding on Satin, &c., 205 

Gilding 206 

Glass, Painting on 1"^ 

Grecian Painting "^"^ 

Ground Glass, Painting on 183 



CONTENTS. 9 

Green Leaves in Water Colors 303 

Gold Size, To make 342 

Ground Glass, Imitation of 323 

Gi'ecian Yarnish 324 

Hair, Coloring The 138 

Hints for Designers and Illustrators 293 

Heraldic Emblazoning 310 

Hair Work 262 

Horn Paper, To make 113 

Illuminating 307 

Japanese (Anglo) Work 229 

Linnaeography 296 

Leather Work 209 

Leaf Impressions, Taking 280 

Magic Lantern 181 

Mastic Varnish, To make 340 

Monochromatic Drawing 67 

Moss Work 259 

Oil Painting 51 

Oriental Painting 165 

Painting in Oil 51 

Painting Panoramas, Maps, &c., 63 

Painting, Grecian 75 

Painting in Water Colors 97 

Painting, Theorem ' . . . 143 

Painting on Glass 179 

Painting Photographs . . . .'. . . .119 

Painting, Oriental 165 

Painting, Permanent Flower 299 

Preserving Varnish 326 

Painting on Rice Paper 177 



10 



CONTENTS. 



Painting Signs 
Painting, Antique . 
Panorama Painting . 
Paper Ornaments, To cut out 
Papier Mache', as taught by Prof. Day- 
Papier Mache' Varnish . 
Paper Flowers . 

Pearl, Imitation for Embroidery 
Pearling . . . • 
Potichomanie . 
Pencils, Choice of . 
Pencil Drawing, To preserve 
Pictures for Grecian Painting 
Photograph Painting 
Perspective Drawing 
Plaster Work . 
Rice Paper Painting 
Receipts, Miscellaneous . 

Sea-Weeds 

Sealing-Wax Work 

Sorrento Wood Cutting . 

Scene Painting 

Sketching from Nature . 

Shell Work . 

Sign Painting . 

Tamarind-Seed Work 

Taxidermy 

Tints, Flesh . 

Tints, Hair 

Tints for Photographs . 

Tinting Glass Positives, &c., 



CONTENTS. 11 

Tinting Photographs 184 

Theorem Painting 113 

Tracing Paper 339 

Transparencies, To make 279 

Transfer Paper, To make 340 

Transfer on Wood 230 

Transfer, Varnish 324 

Varnish, Spirit Sandarac 339 

Varnish, Transfer 339 

Varnish, Mastic 340 

Varnish, Antique 341 

Varnish, Cabinet 341 

Varnish, Turpentine 341 

Varnish, Papier Mache' 341 

Varnishing colored Engravings 342 

Varnish, Transfer 324 

Varnish, Grecian 324 

Varnish, Clear 326 

Varnish, Preserving 326 

Water- Color Painting 99 

Wax Work 233 



Jratoing. 



(13) 




HIS art, by whicli we imitate the beau- 
ties of the exterior world, and transfer to 
paper or canvas the creations of our im- 
agination, is not only a pleasing accomplishment, but of 
practical utility in every department of human life ; and 
while, as in every branch of study, all cannot expect to 
attain to equal excellence, there is no one who does not 
possess within him a germ which, with proper cultivation, 

(15) 



16 DRAWING. 

will develop itself in some degree of artistic beauty. 
As in music, so in drawing, to become a master of the 
art requires a life-long labor and constant application; 
and yet it is within the reach of all to acquire such 
a knowledge, and such an experience, as to produce pleas- 
ing effects, to cultivate and elevate our tastes for the 
beautiful in nature and art, and decorate our dwellings 
with representations of the outer world, and make per- 
manent with the pencil the dreamy imaginations which 
float in the ever-active mind. 

Drawing should become an essential element in our 

popular education, for while it conduces to our pleasure 

and amusement, practical advantages naturally flow from 

it; and although in an elementary treatise like this it 

is impossible to enter into the minute details necessary 

^ for high proficiency in the art, yet it is believed the 

attentive student will find here an incentive for further 

study, and that, by following the concise but systematic 

directions here given, he will, although a beginner, be 

enabled to produce pleasing pictures with a true artistic 

effect, and lay the foundation for a thorough knowledge 

of the principles of drawing. Success in any thing is 

in proportion to the exertion put forth, and the student- 



DRAWING. 1*J 

artist who, with fixedness of purpose, and with patience, 
applies his mind and hand to the work may feel as- 
sured of the most gratifying results; and each suc- 
cessive difficulty overcome, and every new idea gained, 
add knowledge, experience, and encouragement. 

A perfect muscular control of the hand is of the first 
importance in drawing, as accuracy of outline and delicacy 
of expression can only be obtained by having the fino-ers 
in complete subjection to the will, so that the slightest 
volition will be properly interpreted by the pencil. This 
requisite facility in the use of the pencil or brush can be 
acquired only by patient practice, the length of time neces- 
sary for its attainment being in some degree dependent 
upon the natural ability, taste, or "genius" of the 
learner. Of equal importance, and as absolutely indis- 
pensable, is correctness of eye in determining distances 
and measurements -an attainment which can be carried 
to a wonderful degree of perfection. Thorough practice 
in making straight and curved lines demands the first 
attention of the beginner. Commence luith short hori- 
zontal lines^ gradually increasing the length, making the 
Hne in a distinct, bold; and rapid manner, first from left 
to right, and then vice versa, thus • . 



18 DRAWING. 

next, straight lines touching each other at different 



angles, thus : 
lines, thus ; 



then perpendicular 



Too much practice cannot be given to these lines, and 
the difficulties at first experienced in drawing straight, 
continuous lines will gradually diminish. When these 
right-lines, horizontal, perpendicular, and at various 
angles, can be drawn wdth accuracy and wdth freedom 
of pencil, then practice the following, which is a com- 
bination of them all, thus : 
nations will suggest them- 
inventive mind, and the 
astonished in his practice in 
variety of forms and almost 
tions can be produced from 
It may be well to copy some 
posed of straight lines ; but 
od is to draw from the store- 




Other combi- 
selves to the 
learner will be 
finding what a 
endless varia- 
straight lines, 
figures com- 
the best meth- 
house of your 




DRAWING. 29- 

own invention, taxing the mind for new combinations, 

and thus adopting one of the surest means of success.' 

The power to originate, as well as to imitate, is necessary 

to make the true artist. 

Having attained a degree of proficiency in straight 

Hues, the next step is the curve, with all its variations. 

Commence by drawing a horizontal line, connecting the ends 

by arches of difierent altitudes, then 

perpendicular lines, connecting the 

ends by arches in the same manner. 

In each of these cases, the straight lines form 
a basis by which to determine with more accu- 
racy the true sweep of the arch curves; and 
all irregular forms can best be determined by 
their relative positions to straight lines. A 
practiced eye will soon learn to detect right 
lines in all things, and thus have an unerring 
standard. 

Now draw straight lines, and divide them into equal 
parts, testing the accuracy of your eye by the compasses, 

f and practice this until the eye can 

measure with great accuracy. Then draw arches, (without 
any base line,) and divide them in the same manner. 




OA DRAWING. 

Forms of grace and beauty being 
dependent upon curved lines, great 
attention and practice should be given to them in 
the infinite variety in ,vhich they occur. Select simple 
curvilinear forms, and having acquired some profi- 
ciency in making them, advance to those of a more 
difficult character; vases, goblets, shells, and numerous 
other forms combining curved lines will readily occur to 
the mind of the artist. 

It will now be found a good practice to draw straight 
and curved lines with their parallels, varying the spaces 
between the lines until the hand becomes steady and accu- 
rate in its motion, and the eye determines the equi-dis- 



tances, tlius : 




Make tlie lines with boldnesR, and a certain degree of 

rapidity. 

Thorougli practice in drawing these lines, and in divid- 
ing them at equi-distances, gives to the learner the whole 
alphabet of diawing. Too much attention cannot be given 
to the combinations of which these various lines are sus- 
ceptible, and patience and diligence are indispensable 
requisites to success. All mistakes should be carefully 



DRAWING. 



21 



corrected, not in imagination, but in reality, as thus the 
hand and eye gain experience. Fruit and flowers are in- 
teresting models from which to draw, and these can be 
followed by more complicated subjects. 

The drawing of the human head, and indeed of the whole 
human form, being wholly dependent upon curved lines, 
no more appropriate place will be found in which to give 
a few elementary directions on this branch of the art of 
drawing ; and it may be remarked, that in all the works 
of nature no straight lines are to be found ; trees, flowers, 
leaves, fruit, and every motion of air or water, are curvi- 
linear in their character. 

It is easier to draw a head in profile (side view) than in 
any other position, as in this way the features can be more 




readily preserved, and a little practice in profile drawing 
(strict attention being given to the originals) will insure a 



22 DRAWING. 

creditable degree of proficiency. In drawing ^ front view, 
the artist should begin with the mouth; and as a general 
rule, in the words of an artist-author, " before making any 
attempt at expression he should become familiar with 
the actual form of the features, and be capable of delin- 
eating them knowingly." The line made by the meeting 
of the lips is the first thing to be drawn. Draw a straight 
Hne, and upon it mark with a dotted or faint line the 
width of the mouth, center, thickness of lips, etc., giving 
careful attention to the form ; then develop these marks 
into a correct outline of the form to be imitated, and the 
remaining steps of filling up will come in easy succession. 
Repeated experiments should be made until the use of the 
straight or base line can be dispensed with ; and the same 
principle will apply to the drawing of the eye. Practice 




will enable the learner in a short time to preserve the 
relative proportions as well without as with this line. 



DRAWING. 



23 



In making the lines which give form or rotundity, com- 
mence with the most prominent ones, attending carefully 
to all the details of light and shade, and not attempting 
too rapid progress. The principles above given will apply 
with the same force to other features, and the pupil 
should practice with patience each and every feature before 
attempting to combine them. The accompanying diagrams 
will be of essential service to the pupil. 

Having attained some proficiency in these, the pupil 
can next proceed with the following, practicing patiently 
and thoroughly. 

1 





It has been remarked that it is easier to draw a profile 
than a front view; therefore it is recommended to the 



24 



DRAWING. 



pupil to commence a perfect head with a profile ; and here 
nature provides a base line or point of unerring certainty, 
by which to produce the head. With the head in an 
erect position, a line connecting the lower points of the 
nose and ear will be horizontal ; and thus is established a 
basis to which all the parts of the head must have certain 




fixed relations. Erect a perpendicular from one end of 
a horizontal line, and upon this mark the length of the 
nose, equal to one fourth the whole height of the head. 
This proportion will, of course, sometimes vary, but it 
forms a pretty accurate measurement. The oval, we 
mean the egg-shape oval, although of little use in profile 
drawing, in a full front view is of striking use and value. 



i^RAWING. 



25 



The student unacquainted with the subject will be aston- 
ished to see how nearly the human face partakes of the 
oval form, and this knowledge, when acted upon, will be of 
great assistance. A single outline illustration will show 
better than pages of print the force of our remarks upon 
the oval form of the human face. 




The obtuse or elongated form of the oval must be deter- 
mined by the individual cases. 
3 



26 DRAWING. 

As a general obsen-ation, it may be said that just in 
proportion as the head is elevated or depressed from an 
erect position, the line from ear to nose, before alluded 
to, will cease to be horizontal, and take a greater or less 
curvature ; still it will continue to be a governing line. 
Care and judgment in the use of the oval is necessary, 
as at every inclination of the head to the left or right, 
the perpendicular or center ceases to be a straight line, 
and as the curvature increases the line loses its position 
as a central line for determining the features, while the 
oval is gradually lost for an outline as the picture a^i 
proaches a profile. The imaginary central line of the head 
and face should always receive the careful study and con- 
tinual attention of the student, as it determines the gen- 
eral character of the head and its separate parts. 

Copying plaster casts is an excellent practice, and the 
learner should improve every opportunity for observa- 
tion and study ; and all attempts at imitation, either 
from casts, living heads, or paintings, will insure gratify- 
ing progress in the art. Proper subjects for copying 
are within the reach of all those into whose hands this 
book will fall. As the pupil passes on to advance pages, 
he will find various directions for the minutiae of draw- 



DRAWING. 27 

ing, which will be of use in all his attempts to repre- 
sent the human head. 




LIGHT AND SHADE. 

A proper disposition of light and shade gives to 
drawing and painting the expression of form, and thus 
the eye receives nearly the same impression in looking 
upon the flat canvas or paper as upon the natural ob- 
jects. So Ruskin remarks, in speaking of color and 
shading, " Every thing that you can see, in the world 
around you, presents itself to your eyes only as an 
arrangement of patches of different colors variously 
shaded ; ... and the first thing to be learned is, how 
to produce extents of smooth color, without texture." 
To acquire proficiency in effecting a true light and 



28 



DRAWING. 



shade, the pupil or learner must possess an accurate or 
a cultivated eye to aid him in giving true representa- 
tions of the objects to be painted or drawn. 

The variety of form and direction in nature can only 
be imitated by a corresponding variety in the lines and 
touches used in their delineation, expressing as nearly 
as possible the exact form and character of the original. 
For instance, an even, smooth surface requires an even- 





ness and regularity in the lines, approaching as nearly 
as possible to an unbroken surface ; and if it is desired 
to imitate a broken or uneven surface, recourse must 
be had to broken, curved, or uneven lines, such as 



DRAWING. 29 

will best represent the object. It will readily be per- 
ceived by the learner that the lines (if the shading par- 
takes of the linear character) must vary according to 
the subject. 

The representation of a round object is managed by 
a careful disposition of the light upon the convex part, 
and the shade attending it. It is this difference in the 
shading which gives objects drawn on a plain surface 
their proper relief, and expresses space and distance. 
Indian ink, or sepia, is useful for this purpose. Pre- 
pare two, three, or more shades of either in small cups, 
lay on the shades with camel's hair or sable brushes, 
putting on the lighter shades first, and work gradually 
darker until the required depth of color is secured. It 
is better to have the shades too light than too dark, as 
it is very easy to strengthen shades, but difficult to 
lighten them. As a general rule, it must be observed 
that the different tones are to be so blended together 
as to form a gradual shade, becoming fainter as it ap- 
proaches the light. 

In the disposal of the shades, the following direc- 
tions may be studied with benefit : — 

1st. All the shades of objects in the same piece 



so DRAWING. 

must fall the same way, that is, farthest from the light. 
For instance, if the light comes from the right side of 
the piece, the shades must Ml toward the left, and 
vice versa, 

2d. The part of an object nearest the light must 
have the faintest shades. This rule is observable in 
the folds of drapery, where the projecting folds appear 
light, and the inner folds dark. Titian observed, that 
" the best rule for the distribution of lights and shad- 
ows may be drawn from an observation of a bunch of 
grapes." 

3d. Calm waters have either a faint shade or none 
at all ; but there should always be a line of shade near 
the banks. Agitated waters should have various shades. 

4th. In large-extended views, as landscapes, the dis- 
tant objects are faintly shaded, and the more distant 
they are, the fainter the shades. 

5th. With reference to the horizon and clouds, the 
clouds nearest the top of the piece are more strongly 
shaded than those more remote, the strength of shade 
decreasing as the clouds descend toward the horizon, 
where they become faint and indistinct, because at the 
greatest distance from the point of view. 



DRAWING. 31 

6tli. Some substances have the property of reflect- 
ing the light strongly, as satin, silk, and all po/isbed 
metals. In these there must be very strong light, and 
consequently a deep shade. All bright lights must be 
contrasted with strong shades, and fainter lights with 
weaker shades. The examination of busts and statues 
is of great assistance in establishing these principles in 
the mind ; and a critical attention to the effect of light 
and shade in the world around us, in the open air, or 
when the sunlight pours through the windows or door, 
or where the rays of the moon light up the evening land- 
scape, and steal in through the opening curtains, in- 
deed, the opportunities for studying the various phe- 
nomena of light and shade are ever present with us, and 
the observing pupil will in this way learn more than by 
pages of directions. 

PERSPECTIVE. 

Perspective is the art of drawing on a plain surface 
the true representation or appearance of any given ob- 
ject, as it would appear upon a pane of glass when held 
upright between you and the object. 



32 



DRAWING. 



The eye of a person when sketching from nature is 
presumed to be placed in the center of a circle of 360°, 
and the expanse of vision, while the eye is stationary, 
is an angle of 60^ ; in other words, the eye embraces a 
range of 30° on each side of a center. This angle of 







60° has no reference to the length of lines on either 
side, since they are regulated by the assumed width of 
the picture proposed to be drawn ; for instance, if your 
perspective plane be some distance from you, the ob- 
jects would be larger ; if nearer, the objects would be 
smaller — both pictures representing the same scene. 



DRAWING. gg 

If a person standing on the sea shore look far away 
over the expanse of water, he will observe a boundary 
line — the water apparently meeting with the sky by a 
well-defined straight line. This is called the horizontal 
line, and it is exactly opposite the range of the eye ; 
and that particular point of the horizontal line to which 
the eye of the sketcher is directed is called the point of 
sight. If he ascend to any hight on the shore, the line 
of the horizon must be placed higher in his drawing, 
because his eye is so much higher; and the axiom lai'd 
down in the previous paragraph holds true, that the 
horizontal line is that line exactly on a level with 
the eye. 

Ai.y person looking on a straight road which con- 
tinues into the extreme distance, may observe that the 
edges of the road appear to terminate in a point. Per- 
haps a better illustration of this m,y be fonnd on the 
track of a railroad, in a part where it is perfectly straight. 
The rails, as they recede into the distance, converge u'ntil 
apparently lost in a point, and at the same time appear to 
nse up, the extreme point being just level with the eye. 

From facts like these Chapman deduces these ele- 
mentary principles ; that, — 



34 DRAWING. 

*' I. The point of sight must be in the center of the 
perspective picture. 

"II. All lines parallel to an imaginary line drawn 
from the eye of the observer to the point of sight, must 
terminate or vanish in that point. 

" III. The line of the horizon must necessarily rise or 
descend with the position of the eye, and consequently 
with the point of sight. 

*' IV. The base or ground line of the picture, and all 
others parallel with it, must be parallel with the line of 
the horizon. 

" V. The diagonal of the square, perspectively repre- 
sented, directs to a point on the line of the horizon, 
the distance from which point to the point of sight repre- 
sents the true distance of the eye of the observer from 
the picture." 

It is not too much to say that strict attention to 
these principles will produce the most gratifying results 
in the progress of the learner. One rule the true artist 
should always remember, that is, never to carry the 
point of sight outside the picture. The eye naturally 
seeks a point of view in the picture, and the nearer this 
point is to the center of the picture, the greater is the 
harmony between nature and art. 



DRAWING. 35 

All objects appear to diminish in proportion to their 
remoteness from the eye of the spectator. Hence col- 
umns, posts, trees, etc., of equal hight, will appear to 
diminish as they recede from the eye. The lines which 
govern their diminution in perspective drawing are 
called vanishing lines, and if perpendicular to you, van- 
ish in the point of sight, or that point in the horizon 
exactly opposite your eye as you stand when sketching; 
if the lines are below the eye, they tend upward, as 
the rails on the railroad ; but if above you, as the ceil- 
ing of a long corridor, they would tend downward to- 
wards the horizon. 

The point of sight may be fixed at pleasure; and 
although, strictly speaking, the center is the correct 
place, it is generally better to place it a little removed 
from the center of the picture; for if the subject were 
a street, or an avenue of trees, the perspective would be 
very formal, and the scene would thereby be dimin- 
ished in interest. 

Many contend that all objects appear better with one 
than both eyes ; alleging that the sight is rendered more 
powerful by one eye being shut. Be this as it may, it 
is certain we see a piece of perspective better with one 



Q^ DRAWING. 

eye than we do with both, and it is undeniable that by 
opening or shutting either eye the position and gen- 
eral appearance of an object are changed. It is this 
very fact that caused Sir David Brewster to reflect, and 
that reflection has created a new era in the history of 
discovery by introducing to the world the stereoscope. 



SKETCHING. 
Before beginning to sketch out of doors, the first 
consideration should be to get the best point of view, 
as a few steps to the right or left sometimes make a 
great difference, always keeping a good lookout for 
objects that will compose harmoniously and prettily. 



DRAWING. 37 

As this does not always occur in natural scenes, the 
sketcher is allowed certain liberties; thus he may add 
or take away ; he may add where there seems a defi- 
ciency, so that he keeps the general character of the 
scenery, or he may take away where it appears too 
crowded. Sometimes artists insist upon having the fore- 
ground entirely at their own disposal, provided they 
keep up the general appearance of the view. In mak- 
ing hasty sketches (as a pencil sketch is subject to 
great inconvenience when there are two or three dis- 
tances, and each drawn in with one kind of mark) it 
is requisite to make a few written references, as the 
sketcher may forget the distinctions. 

A celebrated English landscape painter, in giving 
advice to his pupils previous to their departure for a 
sketching tour, was very particular in impressing upon 
them the necessity of studying " little bits," meaning 
by this not to take too much in one sketch, as is too 
often the case with beginners. One of the best qual- 
ities of a sketch is not only to refresh the memory of 
the sketcher, but to be suggestive and intelligible to 
every one. We will suppose that a spot is selected 
containing not more than three or four objects. An 
4 



38 DRAWING. 

artist seldom, if ever, takes any thing in its broadest 
and most regular form, and never takes a house (for 
instance) as if he had taken his position directly in 
front, nor a row of trees or palisades at a right 
angle to his own position. 

For an early lesson in sketching from nature, a house 
is very good, but must be viewed from a point a little 
aside from the front, so as to bring in as many angular 
features as possible. We will suppose a station to be 
selected. One way of proceeding is —hold up the sketch 
book in front, closing one eye in order to determine 
how much of the scene is to be drawn ; the farther of! 
the book is held, the less of the subject will be covered ; 
when the extent is arranged, lower the book to a level, 
and make a few dots on the margin, merely to point 
out some of the relative positions ; find the horizontal 
line by holding up your pencil horizontal with the eye, 
and slightly mark it in; then get the point of sight op- 
posite the eye, on the horizontal line ; judge well of the 
relative distances of the most prominent objects, and 
faintly mark them in on the paper. By arranging these 
particulars well at first, a great deal of trouble is saved 
in erasing false marks. Be careful to give every line 



DRAWING. 39 

its proper position : a line that is upright in nature 
must be upright in your picture ; lines that go direct 
from you (that is, perpendicular to you as you stand) 
go toward the point of sight ; if they are above the 
horizontal line, they tend downward toward the point 
of sight ; and if below, they tend upward. In sketch- 
ing, it is well to have the lines a little broken, yet 
having the general appearance of straightness. An easy, 
rapid, and decided manner of sketching, so as to ob- 
viate all appearance of stiffness or formality, is a power 
acquired only by practice. 

If the sketcher's productions after a first or second 
attempt be not all that can be desired, it is a fair proof 
that the mind is in advance of the hand, and should 
operate as a stimulus to further exertion. In proceeding 
with a sketch, the pencil gradually wears away, and 
gives an increasing thickness of line : this can be used 
to advantage, as bold lines of the pencil are frequently 
needed, especially in the foreground. By a little prac- 
tice, the pupil will discover that by a gentle twist of the 
pencil, a sharp angle of the worn pencil will come in 
contact with the paper, and a fine line can be drawn ; 
and by pressing harder on the pencil occasionally, an 



40 DRAWING. 



increase of depth may be produced, giving the sketch 
additional spirit. 



ON COMPOSITION. 

Every production of the artist is reducible to its ele- 
mentary or skeleton construction of lines and forms ; 
and upon the skillful disposition of these depend the 
excellence of the composition of the picture. The es- 
sential spirit of composition in painting, as in many 
other things, is variety. In order to make it agreeable, 
it is requisite that all the minor parts be so harmonized 
as to form one well-balanced whole, consisting of a few 
prominent masses or groupings, which, according to the 
best written treatises on the principal laws of compo- 
sition, must be diversified in magnitude and in form. 
One of these masses should be treated as the principal, 
and the other as dependent upon it and contributing to 
it, and at the same time it is necessary they should be 
distinct in appearance and place. Whatever form may 
be determined upon, it is necessary to guard against a 
fixed regularity, so as not to repeat any form or shape ; 
and whatever be the general outline of the masses, they 



DRAWING. 41 

should not be regular, nor must we fall into error on 
the other side by having them too broken; but the 
various parts should bear and preserve a relation to 
each other, showing a whole so well balanced that one part 
cannot be taken away without the deficiency being felt. 

A TEUE Method of Drawing 12^ Perspective 

WITHOUT A KXOWLEDGE OF THE RuLES. 

Many persons would like to sketch from nature if 
they could be free from the trouble of acquii-ing the 
principles of perspective drawing. To such, and to 
others, we present the following description of a 
method in which little study is required, and yet the 
proportions and distances of objects will be exactly pre- 
served. Get a large piece of fine, clear glass, fitted in 
a wooden frame. This frame is to slide between two 
cheeks or pieces of wood one and a half inches thick, 
which are raised at the two extremes of a board the 
breadth of the frame : the cheeks are grooved to re- 
ceive the frame. In the middle of this board square 
holes must be made to receive the movable eye-hole 
piece, so as to be raised or lowered at pleasure. At 
the top of this is a circular piece of tin, three or four 
4* 



42 



DRAWING. 



inches in diameter, with a hole in the center about the 
size of a pea. The following drawing will give a 
pretty accurate idea of it, and any cabinet maker can 
work from it. 




Place this instrument before the object you would 
draw, look through the little hole, and if you see all 
the proposed objects on the glass, the instrument is 
rightly fixed ; otherwise, fix the sight nearer the glass 
in one of the other square holes, adapt the eye-piece the 
hight you wish, and fasten it with the pin. The eye- 
piece being adjusted, keep one eye at the hole, closing the 
other, and, with a firm and steady hand, trace in on the 
glass all the objects you see. 



DRAWING. 43 

You can draw on the glass with pen and ink, then 
lay a moist sheet of paper on the glass, (the side that 
has the design,) rub or press the paper gently thereon 
with the hand, and the whole draught will be impressed 
or transferred from the glass upon the paper. 

Some use a fine brush with oil color, pressing the paper 
on gently while the oil is wet ; but we leave you to your 
own discretion, having given you a knowledge of the 
method. The sketch of a palace is as easily taken as a 
landscape, and a church as a house or chamber ; all re- 
quired in any subject being a situation where the whole 
object intended to be represented may be seen, and to 
bring the sight to a proper nearness to the glass. These 
drawings cannot fail to be according to the strict rules of 
perspective : the eye-hole has the same efiect as the point 
of sight in the other methods. 

Another method of using the same apparatus is to 
divide the glass into squares with threads, thus saving 
the marking the glass with ink or color ; in this Avay you 
have your drawing marked ofi" in the same number of 
squares as much larger as you wish, and proceed sketch- 
ing on your paper what you see in the corresponding 
squares in the natural object. 



44 DRAWING. 

To enlarge and diminish a Drawing. — Divide the origi- 
nal piece into a certain number of squares by perpendicular 
and horizontal lines, making as many in the original as in 
the space intended for the copy ; number the correspond- 
ing squares alike, (your copy may either be larger or 
smaller;) then observe what parts of each square the 
different marks run in the original, and draw similar ones 
to correspond in your copy. This is the best method for 
enlarging and diminishing. For oil paintings, pieces of 
twine or thread might be tacked across at equal intervals, 
so as not to injure or mark the painting; or for small 
engravings you can procure a piece of stout card paper ; 
cut a square in it the size of the engraving you wish to 
copy ; divide the sides and ends into half inches ; then 
with a needle and thread pass through the various marks 
from side to sid3 and from top to bottom, taking care that 
the thread always comes from the same side of the card, 
so as to lie close to the engraving when used. Number 
the threads each way. If you wish to enlarge the copy, 
it is necessary to determine the proportions one, two, or 
more inches to the half inch of the thread card. 

Pencil Drawixg. — After having the form of an 
object drawn, we want it better defined ; for instance, 



DRAWING. 



45 




if we wish to shade a ball, we must follow the shape, 
and let all the shade marks be rounded, marking dark 
on the side farthest from where the light strikes it, 



46 



DRAWING. 



working gradually fainter until the shading is lost in 
the spot of light ; if we wish the same circle to repre- 
sent a flat surface, make all the shade marks straight and 
even, so as to represent one shade. In this way, by 
studying the natural object we are drawing, the pupil 
will make pleasing progress. 




In shading houses, trunks of trees, rocks, etc., observe 
which way the natural direction of lines should run, so 
as to best harmonize with the original, and proceed ac- 
cordingly. 



DRAWING. 



47 




FOLIAGE. 



When a tree is in the foreground the leaves are dis- 
tinctly seen ; we can readily distinguish the form, and the 
light and shade is in strong contrast ; if we move our 



48 



DRAWING. 



position, and make the same tree appear in the middle 
distance, we can recognize the same tree, but the light and 






'» ,., 



r .f , 






ummMJ 



^v ^' 



*P;..!^ 



I'^Jl w 



vmm'g 



ti 






^ ?;.-, ♦nil', ■% »i'i 



^ZM^'^ 




shades are not so strong ; if we again remove our position, 



DRAWING. 



49 



and cause the same tree to be in the extreme distance, the 
atmospheric perspective softens the general tone, and 
makes it uniform. Linear perspective gives us the cause 
of the diminution of size, but in addition to that we have 



:^-'^.i^mM 




diminution of tone, a fading out as it were, owing in part 
to the intervention of the atmosphere. In representing 
this with the lead pencil, the form should be strictly ob- 
served, and an even, pale, misty tone obtained. But in 



50 DRAWING. 

the foreground, the high lights must be strictly kept, and 
the shades deepened with an even gradation. We would 
recommend a careful study, not only of all the pencil 
practice we have here introdmced, but of numerous others ; 
these should be practiced well from memory, as, by so 
doing, ease, freedom, and facility are obtained. Masses of 
foliage can be represented by any of the zigzag working 
of the pencil ; the outside form of the tree has to be 
studied, and the marks best adapted to it applied. 

When a drawing or painting is finished, one of the best 
means of improving is to study it well, and do another 
from memory. By doing this conscientiously improve- 
ment is far more rapid. 




#il f aiitlhg. 



(51) 




IL painting, as a matter of course, re- 
quires that the general principles of 
outline should be familiar, and that a tolerably correct 
sketch of ordinary subjects can be accomplished with 
ease and facility. We will enumerate the requisite 
materials for a " fitting out." They consist of colors, 
brushes, palette, palette knife, canvas, easel, hand-rest, 
oil, and varnish. A tin oil painting box can be pur- 
5 * (53) 



54 OIL PAINTING. 

chased complete, containing hog-hair tools, sable and 
badger brushes, port crayon, chalk, oil, varnish, palette, 
and palette knife. Hog-hair tools are made flat and 
round. Flat ones are generally used for the sky. The 
badger hair brush is used to soften or blend together 
the sky and other parts. Sable brushes are likewise 
flat and round ; both are useful. After the badger has 
been used for softening, the ends of the hairs get clotted 
with paint ; the cleaning of this must be attended to 
while the paint is wet. The better way to do this is by 
pressing the hairs together in one hand, and rubbing 
with a clean rag in the other, until all the paint is re- 
moved. Be careful that every particle of paint is re- 
moved, or your badger will be spoiled for delicate soften- 
ing. It is likewise of equal importance that all the 
other brushes should be attended to. The best way of 
proceeding is, after you have done painting, wash them 
out in turpentine, and occasionally in warm water and 
soap, rubbing on the palm of the hand until the froth is 
colorless. Rinse the brushes out in clean, cold water 
to free them from soap, press all the water out, and 
straighten the hairs to dry. In rubbing the brushes in 
your hand, be careful not to rub too hard, or the hairs 
will be injured. 



OIL PAINTING. 55 

To PREPAKE Canvas or Wood tor Oil Painting. 
— Coat the material over with strong and warm isinglass 
size ; when it is dry, coat it over with oil paint. Dryers 
may be added to the oil paint, such as litharge, sugar 
of lead, etc, to facilitate the drying. If a smooth sur- 
face is desired, it will be requisite to rub the surface 
with pumice sand and water. 

Oils. — Several oils are used by artists — poppy 
oil, drying oil, nut oil, and linseed oil. Linseed is 
recommended rather than the others. Drying oil is 
prepared by boiling linseed oil and litharge together ; 
it makes it much darker, but it dries more rapidly. 
Gold size, such as is used for bronzing, is often used as 
a dryer for dark colors. Sugar of lead is likewise a 
good dryer, and can be ground in with any color to fa- 
cilitate the drying. Megilp is an indispensable article 
in oil painting ; it serves as a good vehicle, and tempers 
colors to any tint requisite for glazing or scumbling. 
It is made with equal parts of strong mastic and 
clarified oil. Artists differ very much in the compounds 
used for drying, each one concocting a vehicle of his 
own, keeping it a secret, and imagining he has some- 
thing superior to any one else. Our recommendation is. 



56 OIL PAINTING. 

to use such as you can buy : it is a very good and ser- 
viceable article. If you make it yourself, go according 
to the receipt given above, which \\ill make a good, ser- 
viceable vehicle for general use. Copal varnish is some- 
times used, instead of mastic. 

In oil painting, as in water color painting, there are 
several kinds of manipulation peculiar to the different 
styles. Water color has its own treatment of erasing, 
rubbing, and wiping out, stippling, etc., while oil paint- 
ing glories in glazing, scumbling, dragging, etc. Dif- 
ferent artists have very various methods of manipula- 
tion to produce the same effect, and yet each is truthful 
to nature. 

Explanation of Technical Terms used in Oil 
Painting. Glazing. — To glaze is to coat thinly or 
thickly over a portion of the picture with transparent 
color : if the glaze is wanted thin and pale, megilp, or 
oil, is added to dilute the strength of the color. Semi- 
transparent and opaque colors are sometimes used for 
glazing, but they are so diluted with megilp or oil, that 
they are rendered nearly transparent. With opaque 
colors used in this way a good representation of smoke, 
dust, or vapor can be produced, likewise misty and hazy 



OIL PAINTING. 57 

appearances. Glazing must never be attempted until the 
under paint is perfectly dry, or the color will mix with 
the glaze, and destroy all the effect you have secured. 

Scumbling is a term used for reducing any part of 
a picture that is too forcibly painted. A bristle brush is 
best adapted for this purpose, charged sparingly with 
opaque color, of the tone you wish, drawing it lightly 
over the parts, so as to modify them, make them cooler, 
grayer, and less defined. Good distant atmospheric ef- 
fects are produced by scumbling ; the under color must 
in all cases be firm and dry, or the bristle brush will 
disturb it. 

Handling is another term for manipulation, and 
means the method of working the brush to produce 
certain effects. 

Dragging or Dry Touching. — This process is used 
when certain effects are wanted in the finishing. The 
brush, being charged with thick paint, is held loosely 
in the hand, and dragged over certain parts ; a portion 
of the color sticks to the part of the picture with which 
the hair thus gently comes in contact. 

Management of Light. — When painting at the 
easel, the light should come over the left shoulder; if 



58 OIL PAINTING 

tlie light is from a side window, cover the lower part 
with a cloth or board. A north light is preferable to any 
other, because it is more uniform. After painting, the 
brushes should be washed, the palette well cleaned, 
never leaving paint on it over night. If there be more 
color on your palette than you like to throw away, procure 
some small pieces of glass, three or four inches square; put 
the paint on these, and place them in clean water : most 
of the colors will keep good for a considerable time, if 
immersed in water and the dust kept from them. 
Look well to the blender every time it is used. 
How TO coMMEXCE AX OiL PICTURE. — If you are 
sufficiently accurate in sketching, you can with charcoal, 
or white crayon, make a few guiding marks ; then mark 
in correctly with lead pencil, dusting off the crayon or 
charcoal as you proceed. If the subject is complicated, 
the better way is to make a clear, correct outline on a 
sheet of paper, and trace it on the canvas by means of 
tracing paper ; then sketch it with a lead pencil. Some 
artists sketch with umber, diluted with oil. The canvas 
is now ready for the first coloring. Begin by preparing 
tints for the sky. As white enters into this preparation 
pretty extensively it is requisite to get sufficient from the 



OIL PAINTING. 59 

tube at once, and thin it with oil, as it is considerably too 
thick for use in this stage of the painting. Sky tints are 
composed of white, French or permanent blue, vermilion, 
Naples yellow, and yellow ocher. Mix them as near the 
tints as the subject demands. The same tints, strength- 
ened with more color, will do for the mountains, usincr 
a little more of the yellow ocher in the mid-distance, and 
working gradually toward the foreground, for which mix 
a set of requisite tints, keeping them all separate, and 
painting with firmness, placing the color at once where it 
is to remain. In some paintmgs, two, three, or more sit- 
tings are requisite to complete what is called the first 
painting. 

Second Paixtixg. — It is requisite for the first paint- 
ing to be dry before commencing the second. Prepare 
the palette with the required tints for the clouds, and 
paint them in with a little more attention to the shape, 
and light and shade. When done, soften with the blend- 
er. The mountains come next in order: attend more 
particularly to their shapes and diff"erent shades ; and, as 
a general rule, let the early painting be of a light style of 
color, for in finishing the colors are cooled down by the 
process of glazing and scumbling. All the colors in dry- 
ing sink, and will partake a little of the color upon which 



60 OIL PAINTING. 

they are laid. This second painting should give a good 
idea of the general effect of what the picture will be. 

Thied Paixtii^g. — A few touches of scumbling may 
be required to aid the effect of the distance ; or a little 
glazing and scumbling may be wanted, to bring out cer- 
tain desirable effects in the middle ground. The tints 
used for these purposes may be, as occasion requires, 
either brighter or darker than the parts to which they 
are applied. In this stage of the painting, do not attempt 
too much at one sitting, as the different glazings may in- 
terfere with each other, and destroy the transparent effect. 
It is much better to let the colors dry gradually, and re- 
peat the glazing at another time. 

Observations. — 1st. The sky in some pictures is 
very important, having an influence over the entire paint- 
ing. In preparing sky tints, they are gradually more or 
less mixed with white. The tints are kept lighter as they 
approach the sun; the colors vary, but they should be 
produced by few. The most useful sky colors are white, 
French or permanent blue, vermilion, madder lake, Naples 
yellow, and yellow ocher. 

2d. The boundary sky line, or extreme distance, varies 
very much in tone ; sometimes distinctly seen, at others 
scarcely distinguished from the horizontal tones. Suita- 



OIL PAINTING. 61 

ble colors must be selected to paint in these effects. Dis- 
tant mountains will sometimes have their summits quite 
visible, and their bases, although much nearer, not seen ; 
this is occasioned by mists and vapors. To obtain this 
effect, scumbling must be resorted to. 

3d. If it be possible, paint in the distance while the 
sky is moist, with the same tints, only stronger, as the 
case may be. If time will not allow, scumble over the 
lower part of the sky at the next painting. This method 
is sometimes attended with better effect than the other. 

4th. As the objects advance toward the foreground, a 
little more distinctness of color may be given. Acci- 
dental touches of light give important aid by separating 
the foliage, and different objects through the picture, from 
distance to foreground. Such colors as terre verte, In- 
dian red, Venetian red, Antwerp blue, emerald green, 
and raw sienna, may be added to the colors already enu- 
merated. Emerald green may be objected to by some 
artists ; to such we would recommend to try with ver- 
milion or one of the bright reds, and judge for them- 
selves. The grays produced by these two colors can be 
varied with a little Vandyke brown, or Naples yellow. 

5th. Trees form an important item in general landscape. 
6 



62 OIL PAINTING. 

The color and shape should be attended to, and the dispo- 
sition of the branches carefully studied. Pencil in the 
foliage against the sky, and all the extreme parts, neatly 
with a small brush. 

6th. In working up foregrounds, do not elaborate 
them with a pre-raphaelite minuteness, or it might inter- 
fere with the rest of the picture. The landscape is not 
intended to be painted with botanical accuracy ; nor, on the 
other hand, should you be too broad, coarse, and careless, 
but finish with a general harmonious keeping of the whole. 

7th. The distance must, to a certain degree, melt into 
the horizon, so as to know where ethereal finishes, and 
where solidity begins ; the mid-distance should be made 
out more clearly, and particular attention should be paid 
to the details of the foreground. 

8th. It is well to have a glass slab, about seven or 
eight inches square, in addition to your wooden palette, 
on which to rub colors, as it is requisite to have some 
colors in powder — a few that are seldom used. On 
the glass slab they can be mixed or ground when occa- 
sion requires. 

FiGUKEs. — Figure drawing is an indispensable ac- 
cessory in landscape painting. For the study of the 



OIL PAINTING. 



63 



human figure, there is no better way than the study of 
feet, hands, heads, etc., from casts. The introduction of 
figures in landscape serve not only to enliven and break 
the monotony of some passages, but it serves as a rela- 
tive measurement — a scale whereby we can form ideas 
of the real size of objects. The hight of an average 
figure is eight times that of its head. This division can 
easily be remembered. If a perpendicular line is drawn, 
allow half of it for the lower portion of the body, and 
half for the upper — from shoulder to shoulder two 
heads wide. 



Hints about Panorama, Map, and Scene 
Painting. 

^ AKE strong cloth (sail cloth or 
canvas) of the requisite dimen- 
sions, and stretch it on a frame ; 
coat it thoroughly with parch- 
ment size, and when dry ap- 
ply a coating of common 
slaked lime, or of chalk with 
some size with it : when dry it 
is ready for the design. The colors used for this kind of 




64 OIL PAINTING. 

painting are mostly the common paints — chalk, (carbon- 
ate of lime,) vermilion, the two siennas, the two um- 
bers, black, Prussian blue, all the ochers, Brunswick 
green, emerald green, all the chromes, mineral red, and 
the lakes. They are mixed with a size made of isinglass, 
glue, or parchment : bristle brushes of various sizes are 
mostly used. For extra brilliant effects, leaf silver, 
Dutch metal, and silver foil are stuck on with oil size 
in the same manner as for gilding, (See Gilding.) This 
kind of painting is now called " distemper painting." 
A bowl should be had for each color, likewise a brush. 
The tints should appear a little darker when mixed 
than what you want them to be, as they dry lighter : 
wash the brushes in warm water when you wish to 
clean them. 

If the designs require to be painted in oil, the can- 
vas is prepared with the parchment size in the same 
way ; then coat over twice with oil paint, white, then 
a pearly white. When dry, proceed as with an oil 
painting. 

It should be remembered, in all paintings of this char- 
acter, that fine and delicate touchings are not necessary ; 
indeed they are not suitable in any way, as they detract 



OIL PAINTING. 



65 



from the boldness of the picture, deadening the sharp- 
ness of outline, and giving a tame effect to the ^vhole 
painting. These pictures are intended to be looked at 
from a distance, and consequently the lines must be bold, 
and the contrasts of light and shade very apparent. To 
obtain these absolutely indispensable requisites requires 
practice ; and the pupil will notice that those parts which 
look harsh and coarse when closely examined, are the 
very portions which give character to the picture when 
viewed from an appropriate distance. All panorama and 
scene painting is based on this principle. These remarks 
are equally applicable to any object which is to be placed 
at a distance from, or elevated above, the beholder. 




% 



Crayox Drawing. 

RAWING in crayon is much easier of 
execution than oil painting. One ad- 
vantage over oil and water color is the 
facility with which a drawing can bs 
completed ; this is manifest in out-door sketch- 
ing, or upon any subject of which you wish a 
few memoranda, and have but little time to 
obtain them. The advantage of working with 
6* 



QQ OIL PAINTING. 

dry material does away with the tediousness of waiting the 
drying of oil or water color. Crayon or pastels are put up 
in boxes of assorted tints for portraits or landscapes, and 
by the blending of these every kind of shade and color 
can be obtained, as in oil painting. Get dry colors, grind 
them very fine in water, add any of the following gums, 
dissolved in water : gum arable, gum tragacanth, honey 
water, sugar candy water; a portion of this is added 
merely to bind the color: some colors require a little 
more than others. If too much gum is put in, they 
will be hard, and not rub off so readily. Gradations of 
tint are made by adding chalk or plaster to the color ; for 
instance, we will select carmine ; add two parts of chalk 
to one of carmine, and call that one tint; add three parts 
chalk to one of carmine— call that another; add five 
parts chalk to one of carmine — call that another; and 
so with all the colors, in any number of tints to suit 
yourself. In order to form the color into crayons, press 
it and roll it out the size you wish ; place it upon ab- 
sorbent paper, — white blotting paper is the best,— 
and let them dry gradually. 

Crayon Papers. — Almost any kind of paper may 
be used by being previously rubbed with cuttle fish, (if 



MONOCHROMATIC DRAWING. 67 

it have a very smootli surface ;) but there are papers 
manufactured especially for crayon painting and these 
have the advantage of greatly assisting and facilitating 
the progress by readily receiving the crayon. 

A good paper for portraiture is pumice paper. The 
paper is prepared with a coat of starch, or isinglass, put 
over the surface while warm, after which it is dashed all 
over equally with fine pumice sand. Panels of wood, 
mill-boards, and canvas can be prepared in the same way. 
The pupil is recommended to study the designs in pencil 
drawino" ; many of the principles there illustrated are of 
equal use in this. 

Directions for Monochromatic Drawing. — Take 
pasteboard or drawing paper of good quality, size with 
isinglass, or paint with pure white lead. When this has 
been thoroughly dried, smooth it well with sandpaper, 
and paint again perfectly smooth ; while this coat is yet 
hardly dry, sift upon it pulverized white marble, through 
fine muslin. Marble can be easily pulverized after burn- 
ing it. When dry, shake off" the loose particles. (The 
process is rather tedious, and requires care, especially in 
the marbling. The paper all prepared can be had of the 
publishers of this book, or at any artist-supply store.) 



68 MONOCHROMATIC DRAWING. 

If you wish a tinted surface, add color to the white 
paint. 

You will need for this painting a knife or eraser, cray- 
ons, fine sponge, pencils, cork, rubber, piece of kid, and 
crayon holders. Fold several pieces of kid and soft 
leather, and use in shading the sharp folded corners ; 
also double some pieces over the ends of pointed and 
rounded sticks ; the learner will find use for several 
kinds. Always commence painting with the dark shades, 
and blend gradually into the light. For very dark 
shades, rub the crayon directly upon the surface with a 
light hand, and blend off carefully. 

Paint the sky f rst as in water colors. It is well to 
shade distant mountains very light at first, and be sure to 
have the edges soft and faint. 

For water, scrape some black crayon into a powder, 
and lay it on your board with the kid, working it hori- 
zontally, and making the lights and shades stronger 
as it comes nearer. Your sponge may do good in ren- 
dering the water transparent. Make sharp lights with the 
penknife. 

Ruins overgrown with moss, and dilapidated build- 
ings, make pretty pictures. We have seen moonlight 



I 



COLORED CRAYON. 69 

views, in this style of painting, more beautiful than 
any thing else. 

Great care must be taken to do the foliage icell ; many 
a picture, which would have been good otherwise, has 
been spoiled by a stiff, ugly tree. By a delicate use of 
the round point of a penknife, beautiful effects can be 
produced in the crayon shading. 

Figures, animals, etc., are put in last, and a person 
knowing how to shade in pencil will find no difficulty 
in this. 

Colored Ckayon. — The monochromatic board is 
very good for this kind of painting. 

Sometimes we make a strong frame of the size of the 
picture which we intend to paint, and upon this we 
stretch three thicknesses of paper ; then size or paint 
it, and sift marble dust equally over every part while 
wet. When dry, the superfluous particles are blown or 
dusted off. 

If you use the monochromatic board, it will be well 
for you to transfer your picture, as in papier mache 
painting. If you stretch your paper on a frame, draw 
the picture on the paper, and shade it nicely with Indian 
ink (water color) before sizing or painting it. 



70 COLORED CRAYON. 

For a group of fruit and flowers, first arrange the 
natural ones and study the efi-ect. For a head, we con- 
sider the drapery and groundwork ; and here allow us 
to advise all persons to study penciling before attempt- 
mg this kind of painting ; also, to begin by painting 
simple and easy things. To those who absolutely wish 
a colored picture, and have little ability to draw it, 
we recommend that they stretch a nice engraving land- 
scape or head on the frame, at the outset, and pre- 
pare it with the sizing and sand. This gives a good 
foundation. 

The picture being drawn, proceed to fill in the back- 
ground, not of one uniform tint, but varying in shade 
and color according to the picture ; for example, if the 
lights in your picture are on the right side, the darkest 
shade in the groundwork must be placed on the right 
side, and vice versa. See that the background be 
smooth, the dark shades of rich brown or green, and 
the light of gray, French blue, etc. ; then, — 

1st. Paint the dark shades of your picture with black 
crayon, and rub it in with a soft cork. The cork pencils 
ready prepared are best for that purpose, or rubbers of 
soft leather will answer. 



COLORED CRAYON. 71 

2d. Put in the light, clear shades, as they belong, 
with the soft and medium crayons, using the utmost 
care in blending with the cork, (or leather,) to avoid a 
dingy and dirty appearance. 

3d. Lay on the browns and other dark colors. Where 
it is necessary to put brown over black, or to blend it 
in with it, do not rub the two together ; use your 
finger, as well as the cork. 

4th. Finish the picture wdth the hard crayon, laying 
on in lines and blending with the cork. 

Having a variety of colors for other styles of painting, we 
leave you to use your judgment in selecting from your 
boxes. You must have a box of soft and a box of hard 
crayons, from which to obtain what you need. 

Always try the colors on a bit of waste paper. 

Do not expect to have just the right thing by simply 
laying on the colors once ; you must work line over line 
very carefully, and many times. The artist must exer- 
cise great care that the picture does not become soiled 
in the delicate parts. 

In addition to the colors you find in your boxes, fur- 
nish yourself with black and white crayons of different 
tones, and a good supply of carmine. We prefer the 



72 COLORED CRAYON. 

lump to the pencil. French hlue is much used to pro- 
duce clear lights. 

Colored crayons are well adapted for landscape drawing, 
and for this a harder crayon than that used for portraiture 
is preferable. The most useful colors are white^ (white 
Italian chalk,) straw color and light yellow, (pale and 
middle, deepening to sober full yellows of the yellow and 
and brown ocher hues.) Blue, (bright azure tints of 
varied strength, pale and dark,) Gray, (pale and deep, 
of blue, neutral, and warm tones.) Reds, (vermilion 
tints, pale and middle, Indian red.) Blacks, (Nos. 1, 2, 
and 3.) The paper must be of some available tint, as its 
color appears through almost all portions of the work ; a 
low-toned olive tint has been found very available. Hav- 
ing the paper an inch or two larger than the proposed 
picture, sketch the design lightly with the black crayon 
No. 1, making sky and broad tints with the flat surface 
of broken pieces of crayon, (1 and 2,) rubbed in with the 
finger ; the breadths of the nearer and remote distances 
are laid in with pieces of broken crayon blended and 
worked together. The mountains, trees, rocks, etc., are 
drawn in with black crayons, and then appropriately 
tinted and glazed with the colored crayons. 



PRESERVING DRAWINGS. 73 

Method of fixik^g Ckayox Dkawixgs by Steam. 
— Crayon drawings are more likely than any other kind 
to become disfigured and defaced, if handled carelessly. 
A method of preserving them is highly spoken of by 
those who practice this branch. Get a tin vessel with a 
tight-fitting lid, and a pipe projecting from the side of 
the vessel, five or six inches long, with a small head 
perforated with numerous holes, similar to a common 
watering can ; into this vessel put two ounces of the 
strongest alcohol, and two drams of powdered sugar 
candy. Boil it over a spirit lamp ; the steam which 
issues from the pipe must be directed to the back of 
your picture, until the paper and colors are perfectly 
saturated. 

To PRESERVE Pencil Drawings. — Best alcohol, 
two ounces ; camphor, four grains. When dissolved it 
is ready for use. If the drawing is on ordinary draw- 
ing paper, the solution can be coated on the back of 
the drawing, and the paper will readily absorb suffi- 
cient of the liquid to hold the lead pencil. If the 
drawing is on Bristol board, it will be necessary to coat 
it over rapidly on the drawing side ; or, what is better, 
put the solution in a shallow dish, and slip the draw- 
7 



74 PRESERVING DRAWINGS. 

ing through ; see that the liquid has been all over it ; 
then stick a pin through one corner, and let it hang 
up perpendicularly to dry. Another way is, to use 
weak skim milk, and immerse your drawing in that, 
drying it in the same manner as before. 



^ruian f ainling 



(7«) 




ROCURE a light pine frame, a trifle larger 
than the engraving ; (this need not be of 
the nicest workmanship ; simply four pieces of wood nailed 
together, to act as a support to the picture while painting ;) 
then moisten your engraving with water, and while wet, 
paste it to the frame ; dry slowly, not over a fire, and it 
will become quite smooth and tight ; now moisten again, 
on the wrong side^ with pure spirits of turpentine, and 
7* (77) 



78 DIRECTIONS FOR GRECIAN PAINTING. 

while wet, with a coat of Grecian varnish on the same 
side, which continue to apply, (keeping it damp only, not 
too wet, or it will filter through in spots,) until it is 
wholly transparent, and without spots. If it is found 
difficult to remove the spots, apply the second coat of spirits, 
and afterward the Grecian varnish. When ready to 
paint, the back will have an even gloss all over it. When 
perfectly clear, it should remain two or three days before 
painting, which is done on the side that you have var- 
nished, the shading of the engraving serving the same 
purpose in painting ; this process is so simple that a child 
able to read this can easily understand it. Each picture 
we publish for these arts has complete and special rules 
how to paint and how to mix colors for each part, etc. 
A list of our pictures will be found at the close of this 
article. 

All materials used can be had of the publishers at the 
lowest prices ; also, a new and choice assortment of small, 
cheap, trial engravings, which will make desirable pictures 
when completed ; Grecian varnish of the best quality, in 
bottles at 33, 45, and 62 cents each ; Winsor & New- 
ton's fine English oil tube paints. Five colors are 
needed, and more might be used to advantage; those 



DIRECTIONS FOR GRECIAN PAINTING. 79 

actually needed are flake white, ivory black, permanent 
blue, deep chrome, Chinese vermilion. Yellow ocher, 
Indian red, emerald green, Vandyke brown, raw and 
burnt sienna, the lakes and some others, can be used to 
advantage, although from the five first mentioned almost 
any shade of color can be made. For flesh color, white, a 
trifle blue and vermilion ; for the cheeks, rub through a 
little vermilion with the finger, after painting with the 
flesh color ; for other shades, see special directions fiir- 
nished with our pictures, as mentioned above. A flat 
varnish brush is also needed, price from 25 to 37 cents ; 
two or three -paint brushes, (sable hair are best with long 
handles, costing 17 cents each;) a little spirits of turpen- 
tine ; a rag to wipe your brushes ; a bottle of bleached 
drying oil, 20 cents; Outside varnish, 20 cents; this 
last must be put on very thin, after your picture is 
dry, on the face, with a stiff brush; then frame cbse 
without a glass. Boxes of materials for Grecian and An- 
tique painting cost 83.50, 5.00 and 7.50 according to the 
number of articles contained. 

DiRECTioxs fokGreciax Vakxish.— Three ounces 
fir balsam, two ounces fourth proof alcohol, (none but the 
best will cut the balsam.) Mix well, and add one ounce 
pure spirits of turpentine. 



80 DIRECTIONS FOR GRECIAN PAINTING. 

How TO FEAME A PiCTUKE AFTER IT IS PAINTED. 

Let it remain in the frame in which it is first stretched till 

it is fully dry and hard ; then cut it out carefully and frame, 

taking care that it be not cut too small or too large. If 

too small, the back board will not hold it in well ; if too 

large, it touches against the side in parts, and causes it 

to wa'inkle. To have it just right, lay it upon a flat surface 

and the frame on it, and mark the size with a sharp point, 

and then cut evenly. If, after all your care, it should wrinkle 

in time, take it out of the frame and make another stretcher 

or frame of wood, (as first directed to stretch the picture 

on, only stronger perhaps,) that will just fit your gilt 

frame ; then take a piece of strong cotton cloth, one or 

two inches larger than the picture all round, and paste the 

back of the picture and the cloth ; after pasting let both 

stand a few minutes to become pliable, then lay the one 

on the other, pasted sides together, and rub evenly till 

well fastened ; now tack wdth small nails or lace tacks 

tightly to the frame ; place the frame against some smooth 

surface, and secure it, while drying, with larger nails driven 

through the frame, after making suitable holes. It will 

dry smooth and tight if properly done. 

Varnish the picture hut once on the face, after it is 



DIRECTIONS FOR GRECIAN PAINTING. 



81 



framed, (not before,) with Outside varnish; this must 
be put on evenly, and with care that it does not run ; 
have but little in the brush at a time. Grecian varnish 
should be of the best materials ; if you cannot get ours, 
make it by our rules, and see that the ingredients are of 
the first quality and unmixed. 



Professor Day's Method. 

/ HIS style of painting, lately in- 
troduced into this country, has 
already gained for itself a wide 
circle of patrons, owing to the 
readiness with which it is ac- 
quired. This and Oriental 
painting have run a pretty 
even race — the latter glorying 
in a gorgeous array of brilliant colors, with sparkling 
aids, the former of a more sombre and antique appearance^ 
Grecian painting is not a new style with an old name, as 
some think, but an old style with probably a fanciful 
name ; for I can well remember doing it in England when 
a boy, and hearing old artists say that they did the same 




82 DIRECTIONS FOR GRECIAN PAINTING. 

thing in their boyhood. This method of painting h more 
satisfactory to mediocre painters than any other style as the 
difference between a good artist and an inferior one is not 
so readily distinguished. It admits of all classes of paint- 
ers, from the beginner to the finished artist ; the veriest 
tyro producing a pleasing picture with a little care, at the 
same time advancing a step in the study of color. Many 
celebrated artists do not hesitate to avail themselves of 
the Grecian style, by commencing the picture, (after being 
finished in the Grecian method,) as if it were only in the 
dead color for a highly-finished picture ; shading and 
manipulating with the various tints in opaque color, glaz- 
ing and painting, scumbling and painting again until the 
desired effect is obtained. When finished highly in this 
way by an experienced artist, it is very difficult to tell 
it from an exquisite picture on copper. I was intro- 
duced, many years ago, to a gentleman in Scotland, who 
had a very valuable collection of modern and ancient paint- 
ings. After looking through several well-stocked rooms, 
he said he had one (a gem) in reserve for me — an original 
by Raphael, a portrait of La Fornarina. I looked at it, 
knowing that it was not the size of the original, although 
it was painted beautifully ; all the glowing tints of nature 



DIRECTIONS FOR GRECIAN PAINTING. 83 

SO carefully handled that not a brush mark was visible. 
After looking at it some time, I thought it might be a 
carefullj-painted engraving done in the Grecian style, and 
mentioned the same to the owner, who seemed very indig- 
nant at my plebeian opinion of one of his choicest pictures. 
I took the painting out of the frame, and, convinced of the 
truth of my conjecture, explained to him the modus ope- 
randi of Grecian painting, and then tore up a corner of 
the paper to satisfy him that I was right. Of course, he 
was very much astonished, and seemed hardly to thank 
me for detecting the cheat, and opening his eyes to the 
fact. The painting was beautifully done, and neatly 
pasted on canvas. After leaving his house, I thought I 
had hardly done right in exposing his pet original, for it 
was a good painting, and he considered it invaluable ; but 
the mischief was done and it was too late for remedy. In 
the course of a few weeks after the unfortunate expose, I 
accidentally met with his valet de chamhre, who, in con- 
versation, informed me that La Fornarina was deposed 
from her choice locality in the drawing-room, and was at 
present suffering in an obscure corner in the housekeeper's 
room ; but the butler, who had an eye for beauty, had 
offered it a prominent place in his sitting-room. So I 



84 DIRECTIONS FOR GRECIAN PAINTING. 

presume La Fornarina ever after had her eye on the but- 
ler. Pardon this digression, but it is a true occurrence, 
and proves pretty conclusively that even a lover of art and 
a connoisseur may be deceived with a painted engraving. 

Directions. — 1st. Procure a pine frame about an 
inch in thickness and half an inch in width, the inside to 
measure exactly the size of the engraving. 

2d. Place the frame upon the engraving, and mark 
round the outside with a lead pencil ; cut down the paper 
with scissors to the pencil line. 

3d. Choose the best side of your pine frame, and coat it 
over with thick paste. 

4th. Place your engraving, face down, on a piece of 
clean white paper upon a table; saturate your engrav- 
ing thoroughly with a sponge wet with clean water; 
press your pasted side of the frame firmly down upon the 
picture ; then turn it over, and press gently with the flat 
of your hand, so as to have it stick evidently all round the 
edge of the frame, and then leave it till entirely dry. 

5th. Pour on your Grecian varnish, and rub it in with 
a bristle brush; repeat this four or five times at inter- 
vals of ten or fifteen minutes. 

•6th. When thoroughly transparent, place it where it 



DIRECTIONS FOR GRECIAN PAINTING. 85 

will be free from dust for a week or so, to allow it to 
dry ; it will then be ready for painting. 

Observations. — 1st. Great care must be taken with 
the pasting, so as to have it perfectly secure, as many 
good engravings have been spoiled by inattention to 
this stage of the process. In our practice we find it 
a more certain way to place a damp piece of paper on 
the middle part of the picture, so as to keep the paper 
moist until the pasted edges of the paper are sufficiently 
dry to resist the contraction of the paper. 

2d. The engraving while moist hangs loosely, but as 
it dries (it should always be allowed to dry gradually) 
it becomes quite tight ; this is owing to the expansion 
and contraction of moist and dry paper. When thor- 
oughly dry, it is ready for varnishing. Saturate it well 
the first time with the varnish ; in about ten minutes the 
paper will probably absorb nearly all of it : then sat- 
urate it a second tim.e. Look at it again in fifteen min- 
utes, and if dull parts are to be seen, apply more varnish. 
This process of varnishing must be repeated until it all 
shines, and is completely transparent. Look at it the 
next day, and if any white spots are visible, apply a 
coating of turpentine. 
8 



86 DIRECTIONS FOR GRECIAN PAINTING. 

Treatment or White Spots. — One of the greatest 
difficulties with which artists in Grecian painting have to 
contend is the breaking out of white spots after the 
picture has been carefully varnished ; it has been 
facetiously termed the ''white spot plague,'' and is 
certainly as great an eyesore to Grecian painters as 
any plague spots to the world at large. None but the 
initiated can imagine the chagrin felt by the artist, 
after, as he imagines, carefully and thoroughly varnish- 
ing a choice picture, making it look as transparent as 
clear water, and placing it snugly away in a corner 
free from dust, with a full belief that all is safe, on 
taking it up some subsequent day for painting, to find 
that the plague spots have appeared perhaps across the 
face and neck of a beautiful young lady, or may be on 
the lips of a sleeping babe, or on the knee of a war- 
rior, threatening to lame him for life, or making a dis- 
tressing attack on the eye of a coquette, depriving her 
of her magnetic charms. All these, and many, many 
more have we been subject to in the course of picture 
clearing. The great panacea for these white plague 
spots is ''turpentine:' If rubbed on the back of the 
picture soon after they make their appearance, the dis- 



DIRECTIONS FOR GRECIAN PAINTING. 87 

aster is soon remedied ; but if allowed to remain for 
weeks or months, it is very difficult. We invariably 
proceed as follows : If the spots come out a day or 
two after varnishing, coat the picture on the back with 
clear turpentine, and let it remain half an hour ; if the 
spots do not disappear in that time, repeat the process ; 
at the end of another half hour, or an hour, if they have 
not disappeared, and the turpentine is evaporated, apply 
still more : the spots are sure to yield sooner or later. 
"When they have disappeared, and the turpentine has 
all evaporated, or nearly so, apply one more generous 
coat of varnish, and leave it; in all probability, white 
spots will never again mar the picture. In cases where 
the cleared picture has remained several months before 
being discovered, much greater perseverance is required. 
We proceed then by placing the picture near the fire, 
face down, so that a moderate heat will act upon it: 
apply the turpentine, the action of which is facilitated 
by the heat. The design of this process is to soften the 
varnish, then weaken it, and by this means penetrate the 
paper. These stubborn cases require much time and 
perseverance; but if you feel disposed to bestow the 
time and trouble, the spots are sure to disappear. In 



88 DIRECTIONS FOR GRECIAN PAINTING. 

all our experience we never have had one failure ; indeed, 
if this treatment is persevered in, failure is out of the 
question. The Grecian painter will, doubtless, think that 
this is considerable trouble. We echo the thought, and 
say, yes, it is considerable trouble, as we can fully testify, 
having had some smart pupils, whose pictures we have 
been obliged to keep in a continual turpentine bath for 
a couple of days ; and we fancy we hear more than one 
shrewd observer, desirous of avoiding it if possible, ask 
if there is any way of avoiding it. We answer, yes ; 
the appearance of the white spots is caused by not apply- 
ing as much varnish as the paper will absorb. The 
picture should be well Avatched during the varnishing, 
and as soon as the dull parts appear, more varnish 
should be applied, for those are just the places where 
white spots would make their appearance if allowed to 
remain. The varnishing should be continued until the 
whole picture has a glassy appearance. On the other 
hand, care must be observed not to get on too much 
varnish ; for by running into this extreme upon some 
warm day, when Fahrenheit indicates about 100° in the 
shade, the colors will be apt to float from their places, 
owing to the softening of the gummy varnish. On some 



DIRECTIONS FOR GRECIAN PAINTING. 89 

pictures ^Yhite spots will sometimes appear, with their 
crystallized radiations, when such pictures have been 
painted two or three years. The spots in this stage 
require a very different treatment, and more artistic skill 
is requisite. The part affected must be matched very 
exactly with opaque color, the precise tint, and stippled 
in on the right side with a small brush ; this is the 
only treatment for white spots starting after the paint- 
ing is finished. 

Articles desirable for Grecian Paintixg. — 
Palette, palette knife, one inch flat bristle brush, one 
inch flat varnish brush, (we use two different brushes ; 
one we keep entirely for the Grecian varnish, the other 
for varnishing over the front with mastic varnish when 
finished,) three sized sable brushes, (one miniature size.) 
Grecian varnish, mastic varnish, (or Outside varnish,) 
spirits of turpentine, drying and nut oil. — Colors. Flake 
white, Naples yellow, raw and burnt umbers, Indian 
red, Venetian red, vermilion, rose madder, crimson lake, 
Vandyke brown, raw and burnt sienna, Italian pink, 
chrome yellow, deep chrome, yellow ocher, ivory black, 
verdigris, emerald green, Prussian or Antwerp blue, 
cobalt or permanent blue, and megilp. 
8* 



90 DIRECTIONS FOR GRECIAN PAINTINa. 

We will give a few general hints for mixing various 
tints, without reference to any particular picture. They 
will always be found useful. Flesh tints, white, Naples 
yellow and a little vermilion ; sometimes for children, 
white and a very little vermilion ; for old age, (weather- 
beaten,) Indian red and white. Light hair, raw umber 
and white ; these two colors will give all the shades of 
liffht and dark brown hair. Flaxen hair, raw sienna 
and white. Golden hair, raw sienna, white, and a little 
burnt sienna. Distant mountains, permanent blue, Na- 
ples yellow, and Venetian red. Nearer ones, use yellow 
ocher instead of Naples yellow. Mid-distances, the 
same, sometimes allowing the yellow ocher and blue to 
predominate. Distant foliage^ yellow ocher, deep chrome, 
Antwerp blue, and a little Venetian red. Near foliage, 
chrome and Antwerp blue, with a little white ; very 
bright foliage, emerald green, chrome yellow, and a lit- 
tle white. Brown foliage, burnt sienna, deep chrome, 
and Antwerp blue ; Vandyke brown, substituted for 
brown sienna, will make another. Grays, white and a 
little ivory black ; another, Naples yellow, permanent 
blue, and a little vermilion. Pink, rose madder, and 
white ; for crimson, vermilion ; for deep maroon, use 



DIRECTIONS FOR GRECIAN PAINTING. 91 

Indian red. Buff, Naples yellow ; warmer buff, white 
and a little deep chrome. Orange, chrome yellow and 
vermilion. Blue eyes, permanent blue and white. 
Hazel, Naples yellow and a little raw umber ; these 
tints are all for the hack of the picture; the front is 
treated dififerently. Any part that is required to be 
brif'hter must be glazed over with transparent color ; 
for instance, a bright red garment or flower is coated 
with vermilion on the back side, and crimson lake, 
diluted a little with megilp, on the right side. Fink, 
dress or flower, paint with rose madder and white, 
on the wrong side, and glazed over on the front with 
rose madder. Blue dresses or floicers, paint on the 
back with Antwerp blue and white, and finish on the 
front with blue and megilp. All dresses or flowers, of 
the yellow class, are finished on the front wdth burnt 
sienna, weakened with megilp. Brown hair, with van- 
dyke brown. Lij)S, with vermilion and white on the 
wrong side, and vermilion and megilp on the right. 
For purple, mix vermilion, Antwerp blue, and white, 
for the back color, and finish on the front ^\ith crim- 
son lake and blue. 

Observations. — 1st. All colors used for the back of 



92 DIRECTIONS FOR GRECIAN PAINTING. 

the picture must be opaque ; the opaque colors used are, 
white, black, raw and burnt umber, chromes, Naples yellow, 
Indian red, vermilion. The transparent colors are, both 
siennas, crimson lake, rose madder, Italian pink, Prussian or 
Antwerp blue, Vandyke brown and verdigris. As a gen- 
oral rule, the tronsparent color that is mixed with white 
for the back color, is the transparent color that must be 
used for the front, diluted with megilp, to suit the re- 
quired strength of tint ; this stands good in all cases, 
except yellows ; these various shades of yellow we inva- 
riably tint on the front with burnt sienna and megilp. 
The transparent color for foliage is Italian pink, and a 
little Antwerp blue. 

2d. In tinting on the front side, we invariably use 
megilp with the color, in preference to oil. If we wish 
to high ten any part still more, we use a touch of 
opaque very sparingly ; for instance, if we want a 
reddish brown dress, inclining to a deep crimson, we 
coat the back with fine Indian red, and the front with 
crimson lake ; and if we wish to bring out a few high 
lights, we add a little of the Indian red ; if too strong, 
subdue it with some megilp. 

3d. In painting faces, paint a spot of pure vermilion 



DIRECTIONS FOR GRECIAN PAINTING. 93 

on the cheeks, and the rest of the face (omitting the 
eyes and lips) with flesh tint ; then, with the end of 
your finger, blend in the vermilion (working your finger 
round) with the flesh tint ; this must be done carefully. 
Look occasionally on the front side, to see if the tints 
are blending evenly, and in the right place of the 
cheek ; if this part is done satisfactorily, the beautiful 
roseate tinge on the cheek is made much softer than 
in any other way. Foliage tints, mountains, and clouds 
can be manipulated in the same way. 

4th. Water is generally the reflected color of the 
sky, unless something intervenes to overshadow it ; in 
that case, make the back tint with verdigris, Vandyke 
brown, and a little yellow ocher ; glaze with verdigris 
and Vandyke brown on the front. If any light ripples 
are introduced, use Naples yellow very sparingly with 
the same. 

5th. Sometimes, when painting on the back, the color, 
after standing a day or so, separates into small fissures 
or cracks. This is caused by the varnish not being 
thoroughly dry ; it is of no consequence, and is only 
mentioned here to satisfy the fears of some. To rem- 
edy it, coat it over again at a later stage of the paint- 
ing, when it is drier. 



94 



DIRECTIONS FOR GRECIAN PAINTING. 



When the pamtmg is entirely finished, let it remain 
a week or so, till thoroughly dry ; then give it an even 
coat of mastic or outside varnish ; let the painting lie 
flat down until the varnish is quite dry, or it is liable 
to run in streaks. The picture is then ready for framing, 
and should be allowed to remain on the 
stretching frame, as it keeps smooth and 
firm. The rabbet of the frame should be 
made wide enough to admit the full size 
of your picture, stretching frame included. 




JCTURES FOR GRECIAN PAINTING. 

— Two difficulties have been met with 
■■{ by nearly all artists in Grecian painting, 
one in finding pictures suitable or well 
adapted for this style, and the other, in 
" clearing " the paper on which engravings 
are sometimes printed. The publishers of this book have 
endeavored to obviate these difficulties, and will send to 
any address a list of pictures executed in the highest 
style of the lithographic art, and printed upon paper 
suitable for Grecian painting. Accompanying each pic- 
ture are full directions for painting every part, so 



DIRECTIONS FOR GRECIAN PAINTING. 95 

that the beginner, or the artist who may distrust his owa 
taste, will meet with no trouble in securing a pleasing 
picture. We would not have it understood that other 
pictures cannot be cleared ; they can ; but while they will 
have the appearance of painted engravings, the pictures 
here noticed will, when painted, closely resemble oil 
paintings. Of course the independent painter will use 
his or her own discretion and taste in coloring, and 
may, or may not, follow the printed rules; still, they 
serve as a great assistance to young artists. 



fainting 



in 



<^f^ 



nttx €fihxB 



(97) 




^^tfOW TO PAIXT IN WATER COLORS. 
'Ox^iXMO^fmS:-^. ^jji tiig advance section on Photograph 
Painting are many suggestions equally valuable in 
this.) To succeed well in this, one of the most beau- 
tiful as well as one of the most difficult of the fine 
arts, will require, in addition to a natural taste, a cer- 
tain degree of industry that will be indispensable to 
success. There are two kinds of water color painting in 

(99) 



7li7VJ2\ 



100 PAINTING IN WATER COLORS. 

general use. We prefer using the moist colors for land- 
scape painting, and the dry cake colors for flowers. The 
moist colors are put in little earthen pans, and fitted into 
a tin box, with a palette, all complete for painting out of 
doors or on the table. The materials to be procured for 
water color painting are, colors, sable brushes, paper, a 
drawing board, an eraser, an old silk handkerchief for 
wiping out lights, a small bottle of gum water, a soft 
sponge, a one and a half inch flat camel's hair brush, a 
china palette, or a set of saucers. 

The paper most desirable for landscapes in water color 
should be rather rough on the surface, as, if it is too 
smooth, the painting loses much of that boldness which 
characterizes the English school. Whatman's paper is 
considered the best. 

Brushes. — A complete set of brushes comprises a one 
and a half inch flat cameFs hair, one each of swan, 
goose, duck, and crow ; best sable brushes ; select those 
that come to a point when charged with water, and 
when bent a little on one side, will spring back to the 
proper position without splitting. 

Colors. — For landscapes, a tin sketching box, contain- 
ing gamboge, French blue, raw and burnt sienna, yel- 



PAINTING IN WATER COLORS. 101 

low ocher, Venetian red, Vandyke brown, Prussian blue, 
olive green, brown madder, crimson lake, Indian yellow, 
and a bottle of Chinese white. 

Stretching and Preparing the Paper. — The painting 
side of Whatman's paper is known by holding up the 
paper between your .eye and the light, and reading the 
name in proper position from left to right. This must 
be the outside. Place the paper on a table, and moisten 
the back well with a soft sponge and clean water ; let it 
remain a short time, if the paper is thick, so that it may 
become saturated ; then place it in the frame of your 
drawing board, confining it with the cross-bars. Some- 
times the paper, after being damped, is put upon a plain 
clamped drawing board, fastened down with glue round 
the edges ; this mode of straining causes a little more 
care, and is not so expeditious. 

Wiping out Lights, — The parts of a picture (after the 
color is on) that require half lights, should be treated as 
follows : Mark out with your brush, and clean water, the 
parts you wish lighter, and then apply a little blotting 
paper to absorb the moisture ; next wipe it hard with a 
silk handkerchief, and if not sufficient, repeat it ; if you 
desire it still lighter, use the rubber. 
9* 



102 PAINTING IN WATER COLORS. 

Scraping. — Before using the eraser for any extra high 
lights, the painting must be perfectly dry. 

Rays of Light. — Such as occur from an opening in 
the cloud, through windows, etc., can be successfully pro- 
duced by placing a straight-edged piece of paper in the 
direction of the rays, and gently washing the exposed 
part with the damp sponge. 

Using the Brush. — The effective handling of the brush 
requires rapidity and experience in covering large spaces 
with flat washes of color. It is well to commence brush- 
work, after making suitable proficiency in outline, with 
India ink or sepia ; you then have but one color to 
deal with, and, with a little practice, all the mechanical 
difiiculties of floating the color evenly will soon disap- 
pear. As a general rule, the brush for broad shades 
should be pretty full of color ; but for finishing, all the 
colors are worked much drier, and the brush worked 
chiefly on the point. 

Outline. — We will suppose that the paper has been 
properly strained on the drawing board, and allowed suf- 
ficient time to dry ; the outline is then commenced. In 
making a sketch for water-color landscape, it is best to 
sketch very lightly at first, so that the marks can read- 



PAINTING IN WATER COLORS. 103 

ily be removed if required ; as by hard rubbing the sur- 
face of the paper is liable to be disturbed. Proceed with 
all the minute details, sparing no pains in the sketching ; 
the time is by no means thrown away, for you are remu- 
nerated for it when painting, as you can work with per- 
fect confidence up to your sketch-marks. The appear- 
ance of a good sketch should be lightness in the extreme 
distance, working a little stronger as the foreground is 
approached. In the foreground, boldness, observing a 
fineness of line on the light side, and breadth and depth 
on the shade side, so that even the pencil sketch may be 
suggestive of what the picture will be. 

In commencing to color, the drawing should be ele- 
vated a little at the back, to allow the color to flow 
downward. Moisten all your drawing with the flat 
brush ; press your blotting paper upon it to absorb the 
superfluous moisture. As an example of a method, we 
will suppose that the artist has a tin sketching box, with 
divisions in it. In one of these, make a pale tint of 
Indian yellow and crimson lake ; in another, a tint of 
French blue, with a little of the other with it, so as to 
make it pearly ; charge your swan quill brush pretty full 
with this pearly tint, and then work in the crimson tint. 



104 PAINTING IN WATER COLORS. 

gradually adding a little more Indian yellow as you ap- 
proach the horizon ; carry the tints down to the edge, 
varying with burnt sienna, or more yellow, or the pearly 
tint, according to the nature of the subject. When dry, 
if the colors are not blended sufficiently together, or too 
dark, pass the flat brush, with clean water, backward 
and forward, to subdue and soften them. The white- 
ness of the paper will thus be removed by a graduated 
tint, which may be made available as an undertone for the 
colors that come over them. The sky may now be deli- 
cately tinted with pure French blue, and clouds formed. 
The distant hills can be carefully painted in with pearly 
gray, and increased with more color as you proceed to- 
ward the middle distance, adding more or less madder 
brown and yellow ocher, as the subject may require. 
The distant hills may be strengthened, if required, with 
a little French blue, and perhaps warmed with a little 
crimson lake. Let the foreground be paler than the 
general tone ; the sky and hills should be finished be- 
fore the trees are commenced. Have a free touch, leav- 
ing little openings now and then for the light to strike 
through ; beginning at the top and working downward, 
with your brush pretty well charged, varying the greens 



PAINTING IN WATER COLORS. 105 

as you wish them, making them with gamboge, raw and 
burnt sienna, and Prussian blue. Increase the tone of 
the shadows with another brush, but with the same 
color, only adding a trifle more blue, and some crimson 
lake, to make a neutral tint. The foliage that catches 
the sunlight should incline to a yellow tint. Paint the 
trunks and stems with Vandyke brown. Repeat the 
tints on the foliage when dry, until the required form 
and depth are obtained. For winter trees, cobalt blue 
and Vandyke brown, mixed, make a good color to 
paint in the network and branches of fine trees. Some 
artists, in finishing their paintings, use gum to brino- 
out and enrich colors. Never use gum water in the 
sky or distance, as it washes ofi" so readily, and disturbs 
every color near it. In finishing up the picture, you 
are referred to the diff'erent methods of producing effects 
by wiping out and scraping. The opaque white is very 
serviceable in finishing, or for assisting in the introduc- 
tion of figures in the foreground. Parts can be pen- 
ciled in with white, and stained over with the requi- 
site color. 

Flower Painting in Water Colors. — Henry Ward 
Beecher, in one of his lectures, asserts that " if a man 



106 PAINTING IN WATER COLORS. 

does not love flowers, he is not born perfect." This 
remark we cheerfully indorse, as it sponges out the pre- 
tended superiority of a class of artists who look down 
from their high pinnacle of fame, and ignore flower paint- 
ing, considering it merely a genteel trifle. This opinion, 
we are sorry to say, is prevalent among some artists who 
ought to know better ; for flowers and their associations 
are ever attended with pleasing reminiscences, and he 
who can best transfer their appearance to paper should 
be classed among the valuable artists. 

The artist's palette is greatly enriched by the color 
maker who obtains his brightest suggestions from flower 
tints, and is consequently enabled to imitate more close- 
ly those brilliant colors Xature has so bountifully scat- 
tered among her choice flowers. 

The colors and materials requisite for flower painting 
are, carmine, crimson lake, cobalt blue, Prussian blue, 
vermilion, gamboge, raw sienna, burnt sienna, burnt 
umber, Chinese white, yellow ocher, and Indian ink ; in 
addition to these, a set of saucers, a little dissolved gum 
arable, and a few sable brushes. These colors are suf- 
ficient for ordinary purposes ; but if flowers of superior 
finish are required, it will be necessary to add the fol- 



PAINTING IN WATER COLORS. 107 

lowing : Rose pink, or rose madder, royal scarlet, Indian 
yellow, Indian red, indigo, smalts blue, sepia, Vandyke 
brown, sapphire green, and emerald green. 

Flower painting can be done to good advantage on 
Whatman's hot pressed paper, stretched on a board, in 
the same manner as directed for water-color landscape 
painting. Bush flowers are more generally painted on 
London board ; the ivory surface is sometimes preferred. 
In sketching flowers from nature, or from copies, it 
is essentially requisite to make an accurate and clean 
sketch ; for this purpose make a fine point to your pen- 
cil, and draw the marks faint, so as not to require too 
frequent use of the rubber, as by rubbing (unless A-ery 
carefully done) the smooth surface of the paper is liable 
to be disturbed, "When the sketch is finished, moisten 
all the parts intended to be painted with a brush mod- 
erately full of water. (Distilled water, or, if this can not 
be readily obtained, soft or rain water will answer ; never 
use hard water, unless it has been boiled.) By coating 
the piece over with water, it prepares the paper better 
to receive the colors. Most of the flowers are com- 
menced by coating over the shaded parts with Indian 
ink, or neutral tints very pale, so blending the shades 



108 PAINTING IN WATER COLORS. 

that they will be imperceptibly lost. To do this, two 
brushes are required, one charged with the color, the 
other nearly dry. The leaves are treated in the same 
way ; the flowers, after being carefully shaded with neu- 
tral, are coated with local color, or as near their respec- 
tive color as the general tint can be obtained ; finish 
either with a number of soft washes, or with small 
touches. This latter style is called stippling, and if 
done with skill, is very beautiful ; but as it takes time, 
taxing the patience of the most patient, it is not so gen- 
erally adopted as the wash and softening style. , By 
practice, the eye will become accustomed to observe a 
variety of shades, where before they could barely dis- 
criminate any. 

Green leaves, when of a yellowish pale green, and 
bright, are painted with gamboge, and a very little 
Prussian blue, and penciled over until the desired effect 
is obtained ; for darker green leaves, use more Prussian 
blue, finishing with stronger color ; for the deepest 
shades, add a little crimson lake, or Vandyke brown, or 
burnt sienna, as the shades may require ; for decayed 
leaves, use burnt sienna, Indian yellow, and crimson 
lake. 



PAINTING IN WATER COLORS. 109 

Yellmc Flowers. — In painting yellow flowers, examine whether 
the shades are warm or cool ; and if the latter, paint them with 
Indian ink ; if the former, paint them in with a little burnt umber. 
When dry, coat evenly over with gamboge — the general tint of the 
flower. "WTiere the high light strikes, it can be washed out a little 
•with the second brush, slightly moist. Repeat the color in the 
stronger parts, finishing, if requisite, with a little carmine, or burnt 
sienna, added to the gamboge. 

Blue Flowers. — Coat them evenly with cobalt or smalts, accord- 
ing to the tint. Smalts blue is rather difficult to coat on evenly, 
and should not be used until some skill and experience are obtained. 
Cobalt, with a little rose madder added, may be used as a substi- 
tute. Shade the deeper parts of the flower with a little Prussian 
blue added to it ; and if a very deep shade is required, add indigo. 

Purple Flowers. — Make the desired tint with carmine and Prus- 
sian blue, increasing the shade to the depth required, using more 
color and less water. 

Scarlet Floicei's. — Paint the shades in with cobalt blue and a lit- 
tle Indian red ; then coat it smoothly with royal scarlet, or, in lack 
of this color, use carmine and gamboge mixed, the proper tint, 
finishing up with carmine on the shades. If the flower is coated 
with royal scarlet, add carmine to it in the finishing. 

T^liite Floicers. — Some are first shaded with Indian ink, while 
others are shaded with a neutral composed of cobalt blue, rose 
madder, and a little Indian yellow. When dry, some of the petals 
are slightly tinted with a weak shade of yellow ocher, some por- 
tions with cobalt blue, others with a greenish neutral : the anthers, 
if not left white, should be done with permanent white, added to 
Indian yellow, and carefully dotted with weak burnt sienna. 

The Deep Crimson, Tuscan Rose. — Shade all the petals more or 
10 



110 PAINTING IN WATER COLORS. 

less with Indian ink, until it would pass for a finished drawing in 
Indian ink ; then coat it twice with strong carmine, and finish the 
deep shades by adding a little Prussian blue to the carmine. 

Pi7ik Rose. This flower is the most difficult of any to paint, as 
it requires so much delicacy of manipulation to give it its true 
representation. The most successful method is to paint in the 
shades with pure cobalt blue, and then coat all over with a pale 
shade of carmine, with a little vermilion added. This is repeated 
on some of the petals until the requisite depth is obtained : some 
of the outside petals may require a second working over with the 
cobalt, to give them a thin, transparent, neutral appearance. 

Arranging and Grouping. — With those who possess 
naturally a good eye for color, the most pleasing arrange- 
ments of form and color will naturally suggest them- 
selves without the least effort on the part of the designer. 
For those who are deficient in innate taste, it would be 
well to study a few groupings and colorings of the best 
flower painters. Sometimes a very pleasing eff'ect is ob- 
tained by placing the light flowers in the center, such as 
white, light pink, pale yellows, and have the rich, dark- 
colored flowers outside — such as dark roses, hollyhocks, 
fleurs de lis, etc., thereby making color a substitute for 
light and shade. The most pleasing groups are painted 
with a slight predominance of w^arm coloring. Some 
artists paint nearly two thirds of the flower grouping with 
warm colors. 



Cfjeirrm fainting 



(111) 




HEOREM PAINTING. This style of 
painting has had many names, namely, 
Poonah Painting, Theorem Painting, and 
Oriental Painting. It is better adapted to fruits, birds, 
and butterflies, than to landscapes and heads. It will 
enable you to paint on paper, silk, velvet, crape, and 
light-colored wood. 

To make Horn Paper. — Take equal parts of copal, 
10* (113) 



114 THEOREM PAINTING. 

mastic, and Japan varnish ; add to the mixture half as 
much .balsam of fir as there is of either of the var- 
nishes, and a piece of white wax the size of a thim- 
ble ; simmer these together till the wax is melted. If 
the composition is too thick, add a little spirits of tur- 
pentine. Put it upon one side of the paper while it is 
warm, the paper having been previously prepared with 
painter's oil, to make it transparent ; the oil must be 
put upon both sides of the paper, rather warm, and the 
whole of the paper lie together one night ; then wiped 
with a cloth to absorb the oil on the surface, and dried 
one week in the sun before varnishing. Each side of 
the paper must be varnished twice, and the greatest care 
taken to dry it well. 

Trace the picture you intend to copy on white paper, 
with a soft lead pencil, then mark those parts which do 
not touch each other with a figure 1. Lay the horn 
paper over the sketch, and trace with a sharp-pointed 
penknife, or large pin, all the objects marked 1. Mark 
another piece of horn paper for theorem 2, and cut again ; 
thus continue till you have enough theorems cut for your 
whole picture. Of course, it will require much more time 
to cut a set of theorems nicely, than it would to draw one 



THEOREM PAINTING. 115 

picture ; but remember that a good set of theorems is 
equal to twenty-five or thirty sketches. The durability 
of your theorems will depend upon the care with which 
you treat them. 

Do not attempt to paint with lass than a dozen stiff 
brushes, because you must have one for every color you 
need to use ; and, as has been mentioned elsewhere, put 
a few drops of water on your palette with the end of 
the brush, to avoid dipping the bristles in water. 

Lay the theorem on the paper on which you intend to 
paint. (Good drawing paper is best for the first at- 
tempt.) Press the theorem firmly down with weio-hts 
at each corner, and proceed to paint. 

Commence with a leaf; take plenty of paint, a very 
little moist, on your brush, and paint in the cut leaf of 
the theorem; hold the brush upright, and manipulate 
quickly with a circular motion. It is best to begin at 
a little distance from, and work toward, the edge ; if you 
take just enough paint, it goes on softly and smoothly ; 
if too much, it looks dauby ; if too little, spotted. 

To shade the leaves, cut bits of horn paper on the 
edge, in the form of the large veins, and laying on the 
leaf already painted, paint from this edge into the leaf; 



116 THEOREM PAINTING. 

slip the paper, and paint other veined parts in the 
same way. 

If successful with a leaf, try a grape. We paint first 
purple, then blue, and finish off with carmine. 

On removing the last of your theorems, if you see any 
inequality in the painted parts, lay the theorem on again 
and correct ; if any spaces, fill up by dotting in with a 
fine brush. All stalks, fibers, dots, etc., must be put in 
with camel's hair pencils. 

In many parts of a painting, the effect is hightened 
by striking on paint here and there with the stifi* brush, 
and blending the edges together to produce softness. 

To paint on Wood. — Choose hard .wood, of light 
color ; paint as above, and varnish when done. 

To paint on Vclcet. — Select firm, white cotton 
velvet. Use the paints a little more moistened. 

To paint on Silk, Satin, and Crape. — Size the 
parts to be painted with gum arable, or isinglass, and 
proceed as with drawing paper. We have seen ball 
dresses painted, with belts and neck ribbon to match; 
also white crape dresses, with vines of gold and silver. 
See article upon Gilding. 



||i).li)gra|fj |ainling 



in 



Mdiitx €shxB. 



(IIT) 



m of I 

AND OBSERVATIONS UPON THEM.* , 

1^ (?^^SE a light photograph for coloring, in 
preference to a very dark one, and 
let the general hue be gray, inclin- 
ing to black in the shadows. See 
that it be well defined, that the 
shadows and middle tints are clear, 
and that the background be free 
from blemishes and black and 
white spots. 

The heavy, dark tints which pre- 
vail in some photographs are badly adapted for fair 
complexions, as considerable difficulty is experienced in 
working the gray tints over them ; indeed, the only 
way ' left for the artist is to lighten them up with 

* Many of the principles and suggestions in this section are equally appli- 
cable to painting in general. 

(119) 




120 PHOTOGRAPH PAINTING IN WATER COLORS. 

a little body color, than which nothing can be more 
objectionable, because all gray and pearly tints ought to 
be purely transparent, so that the flesh color may be 
seen under them. When the complexion is dark, the 
difficulty is considerably lessened ; for, upon the applica- 
tion of the warm colors, these heavy photographic tones 
■decrease in depth, and assume a color which is not badly 
adapted for finishing the pearly tints upon. Ladies' and 
children's portraits should always be lighter in the 
shadows than the masculine head, for the purpose of 
giving that softness which is their characteristic ; painters 
usually throw more light upon them than they do upon 
the mab he.id, which is better suited to a depth of shadow. 
Heads of aged persons, of both sexes, should likewise be 
placed in a full light, as it tends to soften and subdue the 
prominent markings of age. 

Always have a duplicate copy before you while at 
work, to refer to and assist in keeping the resemblance ; 
but, if possible, get the original of the photograph to 
give you two or three sittings, so that you may copy the 
colors from life, for it must be evident to every one that 
a good portrait can not be produced unless nature be taken 
for the model. 



PHOTOGRAPH PAINTING IN WATER COLORS. 121 

It is evident that you must first paint the flesh, thereby 
partially obscuring the photographic tones and shadows, 
and upon it lay the shadows, gray and pearly tints, as 
they really do occur in nature, all, in point of color, 
being widely different from the photographic shades. 

If you have never attempted any thing from the life, it 
will be advisable to procure a photograph from an oil or 
crayon portrait, and, placing it before you, proceed to copy 
the various tints as they appear in the picture. It will 
perhaps surprise you to observe how much of a good 
painting is made up of shadows, gray and pearly tints, 
which you will easily detect by moving a piece of white 
paper about to various parts of the face : you will then 
observe how much these tints prevail, and how far they 
go toward forming one harmonious whole. 

If you are an amateur photographer, place your sitter 

a little higher than is usually done, as by that means you 

will give the neck its due length, and consequently add 

dignity to the head ; for it looks exceedingly ungraceful 

to see the shoulders upon a line with the ears, which is 

always the case when the sitter is upon a low chair, and 

the operator is looking down upon him. Portrait and 

miniature painters invariably place their sitters higher than 

themselves — photographers too frequently the reverse. 
11 



122 PHOTOGRAPH PAINTING IN WATER COLORS. 

If you use a screen to form a background, place it 
some distance from the sitter — say three feet, or even 
more — to gain space or atmosphere behind the head ; 
and if you introduce curtains, take care to keep them 
away from the portrait, so that they may not appear to 
be a part of it. Do not be over-anxious to crowd your 
picture, as many professed photographers do, with gaudy 
bed-furniture curtains, old-fashioned chairs, vases of arti- 
ficial flowers, plaster of Paris pillars, etc., and the usual 
table placed so conveniently for the sitter to lean upon, 
and for no otheiy purpose — making the head a secondary 
object entirely. Such " professors " either know nothing 
of the rules of composition, or are anxious to give their 
customers as much as they can for their money. 

Preparation for Photographs. — There being some dif- 
ficulty in apportioning the ingredients for size to harden 
the surface of photographs, and many chemists having 
urged objections against its use, as tending to injure the 
photographic tones, we have, therefore, given the matter 
a careful consideration, which has resulted in the follow- 
ing receipt : — 

Take a piece of white glue, (that made from parchment is 
the best,) about as large as a nut, and put it into a cup with 
three table-spoonfuls of warm water, and as much ground 



PHOTOGRAPH PAINTING IN WATER COLORS. 123 

alum as will cover a quarter of a dollar ; stir tliem well till 
the size and alum are dissolved, and apply the mixture. 

To prepare the Photograph. — Dip a flat camel-hair 
brush into the preparation, and go gently over the whole 
surface of the photograph, taking care not to make it too 
wet. It should be merely brushed over slightly ; but 
every part must be covered, or the color will sink into 
the places you have missed. 

When it is dry, wash it with a sponge and cold water, 
to remove any extraneous matter which may have lodged 
on it. Gum or pasts the back, and lay it down on a good 
thick piece of card-board, and, placing a sheet of writing 
paper on the face of the photograph, with a silk hand- 
kerchief rub it softly, to smooth and flatten it down ; 
when dry, it is ready to work upon. 

Some photographic papers are more porous than others, 
and will therefore require two coats of the preparation ; 
but one is generally enough. Wet a corner of the pho- 
tograph with color, and if it washes off, leaving no indi- 
cation of a stain, it is in a condition to work upon ; but 
should the color sink into the paper, it will be necessary 
to give it another coat. It is essential that the paper be 
well hardened, as every thing depends upon it ; for, if 



124 PHOTOGRAPH PAINTING IN WATER COLORS. 



it be not properly prepared, it will not take the colors 
kindly — you will be unable to obtain force or brilliancy, 
and, in fact, all the labor which you can bestow upon it 
will be " stale, flat, and unprofitable." 

Albumenized paper seldom requires any preparation, 
but need only be carefully washed with cold water and a 
soft sponge ; you may then hold it up before the light, 
and if you observe any transparent spots upon it, like 
grease, there the water has gone through, and you will 
find it necessary to touch them with the preparation al- 
ready referred to. 

Colors. — The under-mentioned colors, in cakes, are 
necessary. (We aflix the prices of Winsor & Newton's 
paints, as they are by far the best.) 



Carmine $1.50 ! Emerald Green 

Rose ^Madder 1.00 Indigo . . , 

Crimson Lake 45 

Venetian Red 30 

Indian Red 30 

Vermilion 30 

Chrome, 1, 2, 3 . . . . 30 

Indian Yellow 45 

Roman Ocher 30 

Gamboge 30 

Cobalt 70 

French Blue LOO 



Prussian Blue . 
Burnt Sienna . 
Burnt Umber . 
Sepia .... 
Vandyke Brown 
Madder Brown 
Ivory Black . 
Chinese "NMiite . 
Constant \Miite 
Half cakes at half price 



.30 
30 
30 
30 
30 
45 
31) 
45 
30 
45 
45 



PHOTOGRAPH PAINTING IN WATER COLORS. 125 

Constant White is nearly out of use, Chinese or zinc white hav- 
ing almost superseded it ; the only parts it is adapted for being the 
light on the eye, lace, and linen. It possesses little or no body, 
and is therefore valueless in cloth fabrics. 

CJmiesii, or Zinc White. — This is the most valuable white that a 
photographic colorist can use : it washes freely, either by itself or 
in combination with other colors, and possesses this advantage 
over other whites, that it does not change color in drying. Flake 
white, which was so much used by miniature painters, invariably 
dried several shades lighter than when first applied to the paper 
or ivory, and was liable to change. Chinese white must be kept 
away as much as possible fi-om any color which has iron in its 
composition, as it has been found to be affected by it. It is used 
for lights upon cloth, metal, etc. In its pure state it is shadowed 
with cold gray, deepening into a black in the darkest places. 

Indian Yelloic. — A most powerful color, used in flesh and dra- 
peries ; is permanent, and works extremely well ; forms, with 
indigo and burnt sienna, several beautiful greens, etc. ; shadowed 
with sepia and purple lake. 

Indian Yellow, Indigo, and Burnt Sienna are useful for green dra- 
peries and backgrounds. 

Gamboge, Indigo, and Burnt Sienna form a good green for dra- 
peries and backgrounds. Green is not a good color to use too 
freely in portraits, for unless the flesh be very sallow, it spoils it. 
Subdue it as much as possible, and shadow with lake and sepia, 
glazing with Vandyke brown. 

Cadmium Yelloiv. — A very bright color, and its durability may 
be relied upon ; it is serviceable in draperies, and in forming orange 
tints, but is too powerful for flesh. 

Gamboge. — Not a good color for flesh, as it is too brassy ; use- 
11* 



126 PHOTOGRAPH PAINTING IN WATER COLORS. 

ful in its combination with indigo and burnt sienna, in forming a 
multitude of greens and browns. 

Emerald Green. — Very useful for the high lights of some bright 
greens and stones in jewelry ; when mixed with gamboge it forms 
a delicate pale green for ladies' dresses, the high lights for which 
have zinc white and lemon chrome added to the local color. 

All green drapery should be kept away from the flesh as much 
as possible. Shaded as other greens. 

Clirome. — There are five different shades of chrome, commencing 
with a pale primrose, and deepening into a powerful orange ; they 
are all opaque, are good workmg colors, and are sometimes used 
in dark flesh tints, and always for the reflected lights under the 
chin. With indigo they form a number of different shades of 
green, which may occasionally be used for background draperies, 
when the photograph is heavy and dark Chrome is hkewise used 
for gold ornaments, although Roman ocher is to be preferred; 
when used in its pure state, it is shaded with burnt umber, and, in 
the darkest parts, burnt umber and lake. High lights, the local 
color and Chinese white. 

Roman Ocher. — Useful in draperies and for strengthening up the 
yellows in very dark complexions, and is, perhaps, the best yellow 
for gold ornaments. It serves likewise for all kinds of flaxen hair, 
either by itself, or when combined with sepia, but is not often used 
in draperies. 

Bur7it Sienna is too foxy a color for flesh, although in very dark 
complexions it is sometimes admitted ; but generally the Indian yel- 
low or Roman ocher is to be preferred. If there be an out-door 
scene for the background of the portrait, this color, when combined 
with indigo and gamboge, will be found very useful for all kinds of 
foliage, these three colors forming a number of green tints. High 
lights, chrome ; shadows, umber and lake. 



PHOTOGRAPH PAINTING IN WATER COLORS. 127 

XJltramarijie, — For durability and brilliancy, there is no other 
blue at all to be compared to ultramarine, and although many sub- 
stitutes have been offered, yet none have approached it in beauty. 
Cobalt, which is very generally used instead, sinks into utter insig- 
nificance when placed near it. Genuine, it is a very expensive 
color ; the imitation is known as French blue. If you wish to 
substitute ultramarine for cobalt in the grays, you must be very 
sparing of it, because it is a very powerful color — sometimes used 
for ladies' dresses and the sky in backgrounds. Cobalt and a little 
lake make a color approximating to it, shaded as cobalt. High 
lights, the local color and Chinese white. 

Froich Blue is well adapted for draperies, and occasionally for 
the sky in backgrounds, but for the latter purpose cobalt is prefer- 
able. It is a powerful color, possessing great body, and, like all 
blues, requires subduing with warm browns. By candle-light it 
assumes a dark, heavy appearance, almost approaching to black. 
Treated in the lights, and shaded as cobalt ; when the color is used 
in great strength, the shadows must be powerful. 

Cobalt Permanent, and a good working color ; used freely in 

grays, pearly tints, and shadows — washed or stippled over indigo 
for blue skies and backgrounds. Blue, being a cold color, is apt 
to destroy the effect of your picture, unless you subdue or kill it ; 
negative it, therefore, as much as you can, by toning it down with 
warm colors, keeping all your shadows of a brownish tint, and 
lea\ang your high lights only positive blue. These remarks apply 
solely to blue draperies. 

Prussian Blue is not admissible in flesh tints at all, being liable 
to turn to a greenish hue. It is very useful for blue draperies, and 
when mixed with gamboge, bright greens are produced. Prussian 
blue, and lake or carmine, make a number of purples, violets, 
Hlacs, &c. 



128 PHOTOGRAPH PAINTING IN WATER COLORS. 

Indigo. — A very dark blue, and a good working color ; useful, 
with gamboge and burnt sienna, in forming greens and browns of 
almost every possible shade ; while with carmine it produces pur- 
ples and A'iolets, and may sometimes be taken, instead of cobalt, 
for the dark shadows of the face. Indigo and Prussian blue make 
an excellent color for blue cloth — add a little lake if you desire 
to produce a coppery blue, which so frequently occurs. 

If you would have a blue background of considerable depth, but 
at the same time not glaring, wash in with indigo, or indigo and 
lake, and work over with cobalt. 

Indigo and Carmim An excellent purple, and better adapted 

for draperies than Prussian blu3 and carmine, being less gaudy ; in 
both instances the carmine used should be dissolved in ammonia, 
and no gum added. 

Carmine is the most brilliant crimson we possess, and when 
mixed with vermihon, forms the best color for officers' coats and 
background draperies, but for the latter purpose it must be much 
subdued. Spirit carmine and the blues form many useful purples, 
&c. (See Prussian Blue.) Spirit carmine is made in the follow- 
ing manner : Obtain some color in poAvder, wet it Avith a few 
drops of liquid ammonia, and let it stand till the spirit evaporates, 
and it is then, with the addition of a little water, fit for use. It is 
better for draperies than the cake color, but it must not be used 
in flesh tints. Should it become dry and unfit for use, put in a 
little water to moisten it ; there is no necessity for a second 
application of ammonia, unless it dries upon the photograph and 
comes off. 

Indigo, Gamboge, and Burnt Sienna. — A brown made up of the 
above three colors is useful in hair, draperies, etc. 

Carmine and Vennilion makes, perhaps, the very best color for 
officers' coats, and draperies of a like description, but it is too 



PHOTOGRAPH PAINTING IN WATER COLORS. 129 

bright to use in the background, unless you subdue it, which may 
be done with sepia and lake. 

Rose Madder A most useful color in flesh and carnations, and 

when necessary, may be strengthened with lake or vermilion; it 
works well, but possesses little intensity. Rose madder tints are 
found in youth ; but as your sitter approaches middle age, a little 
lake or vermilion is added to heighten them. Portraits of aged 
persons have more lake than madder ; . while in the complexions of 
cliildren vermilion predominates over the latter color. Rose mad- 
der is a good color for glazing the under lip. 

Crimson Lake. — For flesh tints and draperies, all lakes arc ex- 
ceedingly useful, not only by themselves, but in their combinations 
with other colors. When used as a shadow color with sepia, it 
is better to have purple lake. 

Vermilion is frequently used in flesh washes for fair people and 
children ; but it must be with extreme caution, as it is a very heavy 
color. In its pure state it is a good color for the lips. Elemen- 
tary works generally give three dLfiFerent vermilions, viz., vermil- 
ion, scarlet vermilion, and orange vermilion ; but you can make 
the two last named, by adding to the fir.^t, carmine for the scarlet, 
and gamboge for the orange, which Avill answer every purpose. 
Combined with rose madder for children's carnations. 

Light Red. — A durable color, and of great use in flesh ; with 
carmine or vennilion, and a little Indian yellow, it forms a wash 
which, when properly modified, will do for almost every complex- 
ion. Miniature painters, with this color, cobalt, rose madder, and 
Indian yellow, make their gray shadows and pearl tints. 

Venetian Red, diff'ering but slightly fi-om light red, may be used 
for precisely the same purposes. 

Indian Red. — A good color for strengthening the darkest shad- 
ows on the face, but must be used sparingly, being in its nature 



130 PHOTOGRAPH PAI'NTING IN WATER COLORS. 

very powerful ; has great body, and inclines to a purple hue. It is 
durable and works well, and when used with lake, is a good color 
for putting in the upper lip with. 

Burnt Umber. — A good working color, but seldom used, except 
for hair and draperies. 

Vandyke Broxcn. — So named, after the prince of jjortrait paint- 
ers, in consequence of the free use of it in his works. It is a fine 
glazing color, and is well adapted for strengthening the shadoAvs 
under the nose, glazing the darkest shades of green draperies and 
the hair. This is, perhaps, the most beautiful brown that we have. 

Madder Broken. — A very rich brown, and of great use in dra- 
peries ; combined M'ith cobalt, it forms many very excellent grays 
suitable either for the face or backgromid. 

All madders are said to be permanent. 

Sejna is the most useful brown, no other entering so largely 
into combination with other colors as this does ; AA'ith lake, indigo, 
and gamboge, a pure transparent black is formed, calculated for 
silks, satins, and black cloth. Sepia and lake, again, make the 
best color for giving the sharp touches about the eyes, eyebrows, 
etc. ; and for the hair it stands unrivaled by any other brown, 
being useful not only in the lightest, but also in the very darkest 
tints. 

Sepia and Indigo. — A gray formed of the above colors is of use 
for backgrounds ; may be strengthened in the darker parts with 
sepia alone, and warmed with Vandyke brown. 

Sepia, Indigo, and Lake form an excellent black, used for 
silks, satins, and as a shadow color for black cloth. With these 
three colors you may make a black of any required tint. Keep 
the darkest shadows rather red. Another black is made up of 
indigo, purple lake, and gamboge, and is equally as good as the 
former, and used for precisely the same purposes. 



PHOTOGRAPH PAINTING IN WATER COLORS. 131 

Lampblack. — A strong body color ; is chiefly used with Chinese 
white for black cloths and velvets. 

Ivory Black. — Much the same as lampblack, and is occasionally 
used in lieu of it. It is, however, a little browner than the former ; 
both work freely. 

Choice of Pencils. — Let the pencils which you select 
be sable, and of a middling size ; it is very injudicious 
to use small ones, as they impart to the work a harsh 
appearance, which is by all means to be avoided ; there- 
fore work with a good-sized pencil, the quill being some- 
what smaller than a goose or swan pen, and capable of 
holding a reasonable quantity of color in fluid. With 
such a one you will be able to give those firm touches 
which are so much admired by judges. You will, how- 
ever, sometimes need to use small pencils, in marking in 
the eyes, nostrils, etc. : but for all large washes they are 
worthless. When purchasing pencils, dip them into 
water, and bring them to a point on the nail of your 
thumb. The hairs must be all of a proportionate length, 
having a fine flue attached to the points, and, when mod- 
erately full of w^ater, should, upon being bent, spring 
back to their original form. See that there be no strag- 
gling hairs about them, and that they do not split or 
divide. A few French camel-hair pencils must also be 



132 PHOTOGRAPH PAINTING IN WATER COLORS. 

obtained, for you will find them very useful in laying 
large washes upon the background where you require 
smoothness, but they are not elastic enough for general 
purposes. A flat camel-hair tool, with which to size the 
photograph, is also necessary. 

Coloring the face, etc. - Commence with a large 
pencil to wash in the flesh tint ; go over the whole face, 
and leave it to dry. Then put in the carnations, but 
do not be in a hurry to do too much at once ; keep all 
the colors under, for it is easier to highten up, as you 
go on, than to reduce them, if they are made too pow- 
erful. Put a little color now on each lip ; the upper 
one, which is almost always in shadow, may be laid in 
with lake and vermilion, and the under one with car- 
mine and vermilion, the latter predominating, if the sub- 
ject be juvenile. Give the background a wash, and pro- 
ceed with the draperies. Highten the carnations, and 
lay on the yellows, which are perceptible in almost all 
faces, but more particularly aged ones, about the tem- 
ples, eyes, and mouth. Strengthen up the eyes, nostrils, 
and mouth with lake, and do the like to the hair with 
the proper shadow color, working in the direction of the 
curls, or in a wavy manner, just as it may be adjusted; 



PHOTOGRAPH PAINTING IN WATER COLORS. 133 

and glaze over the under lip with lake or rose madder, 
in accordance with the natural tint. The white of the 
eye, as it is commonly called, varies in color as age 
advances — in childhood and youth it is nearly a posi- 
tive blue ; gradually it loses that tint, and merges into 
a pearly tone, while in old age it becomes nearly yel- 
low. For the pearly tone, you will use a like color to 
the pearly tints of the face, increasing the blue as you 
approach to childhood, while for aged sitters a pale wash 
of Indian yellow may be taken. The iris must be laid 
in with transparent color, then shaded, and afterward 
finished with Chinese white. The pupil is always 
touched in with a dark color, and the speck of white 
is laid on at the last. If the eye be black or brown, 
the same lights are used as for black or brown hair, 
namely, light red and Chinese white for the former, and 
neutral or purple tint and white for the latter. 

It is a practice with several miniature painters, in 
hightening the complexion, to lay the colors in little 
square forms, working their pencils in various directions, 
and leaving the interstices to be filled up afterward by 
stippling. This method gives what is called a fatty ap- 
pearance to the work, and renders it bold and masterly. 
12 



134 PHOTOGRAPH PAINTING IN WATER COLORS. 

Others, again, finish off with hatches, and the crossings 
of the pencil somewhat resemble the lines in a fine-line 
engraving of the face, being worked as much as possible 
in the direction of the muscles. But this should not be 
resorted to till near the end of the work ; for if you 
begin too early, you will never be able to gain depth, 
and the more you labor, the more wiry, harsh, and dry 
will the character of your performance be. When the 
flesh color has been sufiiciently hightened, and is as 
near to the original as you think you can get it, then 
begin with the pearly gray and shadow tints, keeping 
them as pure and transparent as possible, working with 
a light hand, for fear of disturbing the under color, 
which must not be suffered to mix with them, or they 
will become muddy, and consequently lose all their 
transparency. Grays are not intended to hide the 
local color, but only to be passed over it as a glaze. 

In coloring photographs of ladies, you can not fail 
observing that their necks are always much lighter in 
color than their faces, and that the pearly tints are seen 
in them to advantage ; use the flesh wash much lighter 
for the former than the latter. 

Note that the delicate blending of these pearly tints 



PHOTOGRAPH PAINTING IN WATER COLORS. 135 

into the flesh and shadows, gives softness and rotundity 
to the work ; for if the shadows be left hard against the 
lights, not being duly graduated into them with the 
pearly tint, your picture will appear crude and harsh, 
wanting that connecting link which they form. The 
palms of the hands and tips of the fingers are generally 
of a pinky hue, and the backs are much the same in tone 
as the neck. In your anxiety, however, to make them 
appear delicate, be careful not to keep them too white, 
as that will mar your picture. But in many instances 
this caution is unnecessary ; for unfortunately photo- 
graphs generally are heavy and dark, so that you will 
be necessitated to brighten them up considerably. 

It may now be presumed that the face is nearly fin- 
ished ; all remaining to be done being to give the sharp, 
spirited touches which occur about the eyes, mouth, and 
nostrils, and impart life and intelligence to the whole 
countenance. If the original of the photograph be dark, 
5'ou will use sepia and purple lake in nearly equal pro- 
portions for that purpose ; but if the sitter be fair, you 
must discard the greater part of the sepia. 

It should have been remarked before, that the shadow, 
which almost always occurs under the nose, may be 



136 PHOTOGRAPH PAINTING IN WATER COLORS. 

glazed ^vith Vandyke brown ; but be careful not to 
make it heavy. 

The background, hair, and draperies, will next claim 
your attention ; but ere you finish the hair, it will be 
necessary to complete the background, so that the hair 
may not be interfered with by the background color com- 
ing up to or over it ; but let the hair be brought over 
and finished upon the background in a light, feathery 
manner. When the background is complete, give the 
last touches to the shadowed parts of the hair, and lay 
on the high lights. 

No mention has yet been made of gum, which is in 
request with some photographic colorists, but which had 
better not be resorted to at all if you can possibly do 
without it. However, if your work appears dull and 
spiritless in those places where it should be otherwise, 
a little gum may be used for the eyes, parting of the 
lips, hair, and eyebrows. You may either mix it in the 
color for the last touches, or use it by itself, as a glaze ; 
but do not use much on the picture, for it gives it a dis- 
agreeable appearance. 

Flesh Tints. No. 1. Fair Complexion, — Light red, a little 
carmine or vermiHon, and Indian yellow ; be very careful in using 



PHOTOGRAPH PAINTING IN WATER COLORS. 137 

the latter, for the reasons before specified ; and, in the flesh tints 
of very fair children, allow the vermilion to predominate. Carna- 
tions, rose madder, and, if the face be full of color, add a little ver- 
milion to it. 

No. 2. Middling Complexion Much the same as No. 1, saving 

that the light red must be in excess over the other colors — carna- 
tions, rose madder, and lake. 

No. 3. Dark Complexion. — Light red and Lidian yellow, or 
light red and Koraan ocher, and if the complexion be generally 
ruddy, you may add a little Indian red ; but it must be sparingly 
used, as it is a powerful color, and likely to impart a purple tone 
to the flesh. Carnations chiefly lake ; but if the complexion be 
warm, lake and a little yellow. The carnations for children's por- 
traits are rose madder and vermilion, inclining more to the latter 
tint. Aged persons have rose madder and a little cobalt, to give a 
cold appearance to the color in their cheeks and lips. 

These tints, Xos. 1. 2, and 3, are indispensable, as general washes, 
for the purpose of receiving the other colors, which are to be 
worked over them to bring up the complexion to the life. 

I'ncolored photographic portraits vary so much in tone, that the 
beginner will, perhaps, find some difficulty in mixing up the tints 
for the washes. He must note that the warm-toned ones do not 
require so much Indian yellow as the cold ones do. 

Shadow, Gray, axd Pearly Tixts. No. 1. Fair Complexion, 
— Cobalt, rose madder, Indian yellow, and light red, v.ill produce 
every variety of the above, from the most delicate pearl up to the 
strongest shadow color, and are suitable for every complexion. It 
must be borne in mind that the gray should be kept cool, and the 
shadows warm, and that in laying them on, particular care must be 
taken that the under tints are not disturbed, otherwise you will 
12* 



138 PHOTOGRAPH PAINTING IN WATER COLORS. 

muddle the grays, etc., and make them opaque, -which is always to 
be avoided, as it is intended to show the flesh color under them. 

These tints appear to differ in different complexions, but the dif- 
ference is caused more through the local color that they go over, 
than any great alteration in themselves ; when the flesh, however, 
is very powerful in color, the grays, etc., must be stronger than 
when it is delicate. 

No. 2. Middling Complexion Shadoiv. — Darker than No. 1, and 
composed of cobalt, Indian yellow, and madder brown. These three 
colors produce a great number of very useful grays. 

No. 2. Dark Coinplexion Shadoiv. — Rather warmer than No. 2, 
having a little more of the Indian yellow added to the cobalt and 
madder brown. These three tints will answer all purposes in pho- 
tography. No. 1, with, or, if the paper be of a warm hue, without 
the yellow, forms a good serviceable gray or pearly tint, useful for 
all complexions. It may be necessary to remark, that yellow is not 
so much in request for coloring photographs as for painting on 
ivory or Bristol-board ; the photographic paper, in itself partaking 
so much of a warm color, renders it less necessary. 

Hair Colors. — In coloring hair, never shadow it with 
the local color ; all the shadows must be somewhat dif- 
ferent ; and the same may be said of the high lights. 
Upon brown hair they partake of a purple tinge, and 
the shadows are in general formed with sepia, or sepia 
and lake ; and upon some particular kind of flaxen they 
incline to a greenish color, which is produced by sepia. 
Burnt umber is most useful in brown and auburn hair ; 



PHOTOGRAPH PAINTING IN WATER COLORS. 139 

and here, again, the sepia and lake form the best shadow 
colors. A good mixture for black hair is composed of 
sepia, indigo, and lake, or lake, indigo, and gamboge ; 
the lights slightly inclining to a purple tint, the blue 
predominating. But black hair is of so many different 
hues, that it is impossible to give one general tint which 
will do for all kinds ; you must be guided by nature, 
endeavoring to match the colors to the best of your abil- 
ity. Put in the general wash broadly, and bring it into 
form with the shadow color ; then lay on the high lights 
and reflects with the proper tints, mixed with Chinese 
white. Upon flaxen hair, you will sometimes be able to 
preserve them ; but in consequence of the photographs 
being dark and heavy, you will generally have to put 
them on. Be very particular in keeping the hair in 
masses, and to assist in doing so, use a good-sized pen- 
cil to work with, and never fritter it away into little 
pieces, as if you had determined to show "each partic- 
ular hair." 

Against the background, let it be a little feathery, 
as it appears in nature, and do not permit it to cut 
into the face, as if it were glued upon it. For the 
purpose of assisting the beginner, a few local washes 
are given. 



140 PHOTOGRAPH PAINTING IN WATER COLORS. 

Flaxen Hair. — The best wash for flaxen hair is txndoubtedly 
Roman ocher. which may be modified with sepia to suit the various 
shades. A warmer flaxen is composed of Roman ocher alone, both 
being shaded with Roman ocher and sepia. The high lights for the 
former are m.ade of Chinese white, mixed with a delicate purple ; 
but if the hair be of a sunny color, then use Roman ocher and 
white only. Always lay in the shadows first, and then put m 
the high lights, taking care to keep them thin, working with a 
bare pencil, so that the color of the hair may appear through 
them ; and in shadowing, also use the tints thin, for the same 
reason. Never put any white in the shadows; they must always 
be transparent. Gum is occasionally added to the shadow color, to 
bring it out ; but as it gives a meretricious effect to the work, it 
is better to avoid it. 

Aubiati Hair. — Local color, burnt umber, and sometimes burnt 
umber and lake, according to the particular shade. "When the 
auburn is very warm, add a little burnt sienna to the umber and 
lake, shadow with burnt umber and lake, and glaze in the darkest 
parts with a cold purple. High lights, neutral tint and Chinese 
white. 

Chestnut Hair. — The lights much the same as for auburn hair ; 
local tint, burnt umber, sepia, and lake ; shadow with sepia, lake, 
and indigo ; in the darkest shadows let the indigo and lake pre- 
dominate. 

Red Hair. — Very red hair is a color which does not often occur, 
and when met with, subdue or kill it as much as possible, for few 
people are ambitious of possessing it. 

Venetian red and lake, with a little sepia to cool them, form a 
very good mixture for the local tint ; if it be too red, add a little 
gamboge or Roman ocher. 

Should a lady rejoice in this colored hair, keep all blues as far 



PHOTOGRAPH PAINTING IN WATER COLORS. 141 

from it as you can, because their presence only helps to exaggerate 
its fiery appearance. Shadow with lake and burnt xrniber ; very 
darkest parts, sepia and lake. High lights, a delicate piirple and 
Chinese white. 

Dark Broicn Hair. — Sepia alone, or sepia and lake, or sepia and 
burnt umber ; lights inclining to purple. 

Gray Hair. — Sepia and cobalt, or sepia and indigo, made into a 
pale wash ; indeed, any of the grays may be used, provided they 
are in accordance with the color intended to be represented. Gray 
hair is sometimes of a warm hue, and sepia is a close approximation 
to it ; shadow with sepia. 

Black Hair. — The best color for black hair is composed of sepia, 
indigo, and lake, or lake, indigo, and gamboge, making the red or 
blue predominate, as it may appear in nature. Keep the shadows 
of a warm brown tint, and the lights cold, inclining to neutral tint ; 
and sometimes, when the hair is exceedingly black and hea^y, the 
lights are laid in with light red and Chinese white, being exactly 
the same as the lights for black cloth. 

Draperies, and other Cloth Fabrics. — In painting 
cloth fabrics, it will be advantageous to use the local 
color at first much lighter than you desire it to appear 
when finished, as it will permit the folds of the drapery 
to be discernible under it ; but to render the matter as 
clear as possible, proceed as follows : Take, for example, 
a black coat to paint ; begin by laying in a weak local 
wash as directed, and when it is dry, go over the folds 
with a thin shadow color, which will prevent them being 



142 PHOTOGRAPH PAINTING IN WATER COLORS. 

obscured by the next local wash. Having repeated this 
process two or three times, you will most likely find the 
coat to be as dark as necessary , but the shadows will 
be too poor and feeble. You will then strengthen them 
with sepia and lake ; and when brought to the required 
depth, lay on the high lights with light red and Chinese 
white, remembering to use a bare pencil and a gentle 
hand for that purpose, for if you work your pencil about, 
and press heavily upon it, you will inevitably disturb the 
local color, and mix it with the lights. These repeated 
shadowings after each wash would be quite unnecessary 
did they not serve to retain the photographic folds in- 
tact, for if you laid on the local color at once, and as 
powerful as you desired, you would be almost certain 
of hiding them, and having them to draw in from your 
duplicate copy. By laying in the washes one over the 
other as directed, you gain a texture and evenness of 
tint which you could not otherwise obtain. If the pho- 
tograph be bold in the shadows, and bright in the 
lights, there will be no necessity for going over the 
former after each wash. All cloth fabrics may be 
handled after the same manner. You must take care 
that these under shadowings do not become heavy ; they 



PHOTOGRAPH PAINTING IN WATER COLORS. 143 

are only meant to save you the trouble of copying, should 
the local color hide them, for, as a matter of course, all 
shadows must be painted upon, and not under, the color 
on which they are projected. 

A good black for gentlemen's drapery is made of in- 
digo, lake, and gamboge, or indigo, spirit carmine, and 
gamboge. When you require a blue black, first make 
a blue purple, and then add the gamboge till the tint 
is changed into a black A red black must be made of 
a red purple, or inclining that way. ^Miniature painters 
generally use lamp or ivory black for cloth drapery ; but 
as both of these are body colors, they will hide the 
shadows of the photograph, which must be kept per- 
fectly transparent, and finished upon with sepia and 
lake. The shadow tint must in all cases be used rather 
thin, as it is intended only partially to obscure the local 
color, not to hide it, which it would do if it were made 
powerful, besides imparting a hard, patchy appearance 
to the work. 

In shadowing, never work across the folds, but always 
carry your pencil in the direction that they run, and 
from, not to, the outline. Your own judgment must 
guide you in apportioning the sepia and lake for shad- 



144 PHOTOGRAPH PAINTING IN WATER COLORS. 

ows ; some blacks require them to be much redder than 
others. A camel-hair pencil is better adapted for lay- 
ino- in the draperies than a sable one, because the color 
flows from it more freely, and the markings of the tool 
are not perceptible. 

Silks, Sati7is, etc. — The tints for the above are made up precisely 
the same way as for cloth fabrics, and must be painted in broadly, 
keeping the lights bright, and the shadows transparent. White is 
admitted sometimes into the local color for the purpose of forming 
the high lights ; black silk and satin always excepted, which re- 
ceive the same lights as black cloth, viz., light red and Chuaese 

white. 

Cnm.so7u — Crimson is made of pure liquid carmine, modified 
with lake for the shadows, and sepia and lake, without the carmme, 
are used in the deepest shades. The high Hghts are a little Chinese 
white mixed with the local color. 

Scarlet. — Scarlet vermilion and carmine make the best opaque 
scarlet for officers' coats, etc., shadoAved with carmine and lake, and, 
in the darkest shades, lake and a little sepia, without the carmine. 
A transparent scarlet for silks etc., is made of carmine and gam- 
boge, or carmine and Indian yellow, with gamboge, is preferable, 
shadowed as the opaque scarlet. 

Pink. — Pink is simply carmine or lake reduced with water, or 
Chinese white delicately shadowed with lake. High hghts, Chinese 
white and the local color. Rose and pink madder frequently rep- 
resent this color, shadowed as the last. 

Yellows are shadowed with the local color, modified with umber ; 
but some pale yellows have a cold gray tint coming agamst the 



PHOTOGRAPH PAINTING IN WATER COLORS. 145 

lights. The lights upon all yellows are composed of the local color 
and Chinese white. 

Orange. — Orange is made of Indian yellow and carmine 
or carmine and gamboge. A very good orange is produced by 
the union of red chrome with gamboge ; but it is too heavy for 
silks. 

Green. — Indigo and gamboge form an excellent color for cloth 
draperies, shadowed with the same and a little burnt umber ; the 
darkest shades have lake and umber or lake and sepia. High 
lights, the local color and lemon chrome, or the latter alone on the 
local color and Chinese white. If the green be very yellow, the 
lemon chrome is the best adapted for the lights ; but if it be a cold 
color, then use Chmese white. 

Purjile. — Purple tints are formed of blues and lakes, or blues 
and sph-it carmine, and lilacs the same. The purples receive a 
warm shadow, composed of the local color and brown madder, 
and if they are very heavy, the dark shadows are brown madder 
and purple lake. Lilacs have similar shadows, but much lighter. 
High lights, the local color and Chinese white. 

Blues. — Blues of every tint are shadowed with the local color 
and a little brown madder, and in the darke.-t places brown mad- 
der is only used. High lights, the local color and Chinese white. 

Backgrounds. — The best colors for fair people and 

children are blues, purples, (not bright, but negative,) 

and grays. Dark complexions may have dark grounds, 

inclining to red or warm broAvn ; and where the flesh 

tint is sallow, use warmer colors, — greens approaching 

to olive, — to throw up the reds in the face to advan- 
13 



146 PHOTOGRAPH PAINTING IN WATER COLORS. 

tao-e. If the usual curtain be allowed to creep into the 

o 

picture, make it a connecting color with some other 
analogous to it in the figure or accessories. 

Never paint a bright blue ground and crimson cur- 
tain, but keep every thing quiet and subdued, so that 
the eye may take all in at one glance, having no light 
patches of color spread over the picture to dazzle and 
distract the gaze from the head, but let every color 
blend and harmonize. 

The following are a few background colors which will 
assist the beginner in his work : — 

Stone is represented by a tint formed of carmine, in- 
digo, and yellow ocher ; and the more distant you wish 
to make it appear, the more must the indigo prevail. 
If the photograph be a very white one, it will be neces- 
sary to lay a foundation of neutral tint, to support the 

local color. 

Grays : cold and warm .grays of many different hues 
are made with sepia and indigo. The grays which 
are used in the flesh, will also answer the same pur- 
pose. A background capable of many modifications is 
made of cobalt, burnt sienna, and a little rose madder 
worked into it. 



PHOTOGRAPH PAINTING IN WATER COLORS. 147 

Madder-brown and cobalt are well adapted for the 
same purpose, and form good grounds for fair subjects, 
and may be strengthened in the darkest places with the 
addition of a little indigo. 

Indigo and madder-brown produce a duller gray than 
the former, and of more depth. 

A purple, cloudy ground is made of indigo and liquid 
carmine or lake ; be very careful not to paint it too 
bright. 

An opaque ground, of a chocolate color, is composed 
of lampblack and Indian red, and may be lightened by 
the use of Chinese white. 

Burnt umber, chrome yellow, and Chinese white pro- 
duce a lighter ground than the last named. 

Opaque backgrounds are far from being artistic, and 
are but seldom used ; if very dark, they give the head 
and figure the appearance of having been cut out and 
pasted down upon colored paper. If you resort to them, 
you will require to soften around the outline to take off 
that effect, and that can only be done by adding a little 
white to the color. If the background of the photograph 
be very dark, and you are desirous to make it lighter, 
lay on the transparent color, and lighten them up by 



148 PHOTOGRAPH PAINTING IN WATER COLORS. 

stippling"^' some white mixed with the local tint over 
them, which will have the effect of relieving the head, 
and whatever parts of the figure you want to bring out. 
Very dark grounds may also be lightened by dusting 
some photographic powder colors over them, and they 
may sometimes be used on the draperies — but it 
must be held in remembrance, that they are not per- 
manent. 

Photographers are, however, getting into the way of 
producing pictures with the backgrounds entirely white, 
and consequently they are ready to receive whatever shade 
of color may be desired, and are infinitely better calcu- 
lated for artistic display than those heavy grounds, which 
require considerable discernment on the part of the artist 
to understand where the outline of the hair terminates, 
and the background commences. 

Paint curtains, etc., over the background, and put on 
the lights with body colors. 



* Stippling. — Toward the end of the work you will observe a number of 
inequalities in the tints, catised by the square patches of color which you have 
laid on durina the procress of hi^htenin? the carnations, prays, etc. These 
require to be filled up by the point of the pencil, with an assimilating color ; and 
that filling up is termed "stippling." Be careful not to begin doing so till the 
work is nearly finished ; for if you commence too early, you will most assuredly 
impart a woolly appearance to it, which is by all means to be avoided. 



PHOTOGRAPH PAINTING IN WATER COLORS. 149 

When white spots appear on the background of the 
photograph, stipple them in with a color that assimilates 
to it, and then proceed as usual. When the spots are 
black, you may take them out with a piece of glass 
paper, and finish as above. 

Tinting Glass Positives, Daguerreofijpe Plates, etc. 

— Photographic powder colors are most frequently used 
for the above purpose, and they are applied to the pic- 
ture in a dry state with sable pencils ; camel-hair pencils 
being employed for softening, and bringing the work into 
form and character. 

Begin by breathing lightly upon the surface of the 
portrait, and dip your pencil into the bottle containing 
the flesh color, and work in a circular direction, press- 
ing gently upon the glass, to cause the color to adhere 

— the breathing is for the same purpose ; then blow off 
the superfluous powder with an India-rubber bottle. As 
the color approaches the outline, soften it off with gray, 
and be careful to preserve the roundness of the cheeks 
and forehead which is observable in nature, by keeping 
the high lights in the center, and graduating the flesh 
tints into the grays and shadows. Next put in the 
darkest parts of the draperies and hair. When engaged 



13* 



150 PHOTOGRAPH PAINTING IN WATER COLORS. 

upon the latter, cause your pencil to move in a wavy 
manner, as the hair flows. The lights are to be laid in 
last, with the colors provided for that purpose, and be 
particular not to soil them with the shadow tints, keep- 
ing them as bright as possible. Proceed in the same 
way with all the other colors, and if the tints contained 
in the bottles be too powerful for your picture, you can 
reduce them with ivhite, which bears the same relation- 
ship to powder colors that w^ater does to the ordinary 
cakes. When at w^ork, have a piece of black cloth or 
velvet on the reverse side, which wall show up the head 
to advantage. The same process as the above is appli- 
cable to daguerreotype portraits and paper pictures, 
the breathing on the plate, and the varnishing, alone 
excepted. 

Hitherto glass positives have only been tinted in the 
manner described, and which the veriest tyro in the arts 
may accomplish with ease. Artists have given very 
little attention to the subject, believing that glass pic- 
tures would never be much esteemed by the public, be- 
cause they are taken upon such a brittle material ; but 
in consequence of the increasing demand for them, and 
the low prices for \vhich they can be obtained, it has 



PHOTOGRAPH PAINTING IN WATER COLORS. 151 

been deemed advisable to say something upon the sub- 
ject ; and experience shows that more can be done with 
them now than formerly, as they are capable of receiv- 
ing a considerable amount of finish. 

Having put in the general tints with powder colors, 
assimilating them as much as possible to the complex- 
ion, you may finish them up with cake colors, by mark- 
ing out the eyes, eyebrows, mouth, nostrils, etc., taking 
care, however, not to run the water colors into the grays 
or carnations, as they must be kept intact. 

These various touchings produce a sharp and spirited 
effect, and will give to the portrait a most decided and 
artistic appearance. If ornaments of gold or silver occur, 
they may be put in with metal. 

If glass positives are varnished, which is the work of 
the photographer, you may use water colors upon them 
almost as freely as on paper ; but in general all that is 
done to them is merely to apply a little powder color for 
the flesh, a touch of carnation in the cheeks, and a tint 
upon the hair, eye, and eyebrows. 

On coloring glass positives entirely in water colors, no 
more need be said than what has already been urged in the 
case of paper pictures, the manner of working being exactly 



152 PHOTOGRAPH PAINTING IN WATER COLORS. 

the same, the chief difficulty which presents itself being 
that of getting the colors to flow smoothly ; but that is 
easily overcome by the addition of a small quantity of 
ox-gall. 

Oil colors may also be successfully used upon glass, 
provided the amateur has a competent knowledge of draw- 
ing to carry him through the work ; the same objections 
"\3resenting themselves here as upon paper. 




ULES FOR TINTING PHOTO- 
GRAPHS SLIGHTLY. — Having 
prepared the photograph in the 
usual way, take a little pink mad- 
der, carmine, and Indian yellow, 
or whatever color most resembles 
the carnation ; lay it on the cheek, 
and, with a clean pencil, soften it 
carefully all round the edges, blend- 
ing the tint into the face. Repeat 
the process once and again, till you have obtained nearly 
as much color as necessary — I say nearly as much, 
because you have to pass the general flesh-wash over it, 
which has the efl'ect of darkening it considerably. For 



PHOTOGRAPH PAINTING IN WATER COLORS. 153 

the purpose of softening, it will be as well to have two 
pencils on one holder. It might appear that putting on 
the color of the cheek at once, and softening it, would 
suffice ; but you will get it far softer by doing it with a 
very pale tint two or three times, than you possibly can 
by making it at once as powerful as necessary ; besides, 
it is impossible to soften a strong color so well as a pale 
tint. When the color is quite dry, go over the whole of 
the face with the flesh tint, then put in the hair, eyes, 
eyebrows, and lips ; round off the forehead with a gray, 
and apply the same to those parts of the face where you 
observe it to be in nature. If your photograph be a very 
dark one, you will not require so much gray in it as if 
it were a light impression ; next wash in the background, 
and proceed with the draperies, etc. 

Return now to the face, strengthen the carnations, 
grays, and shadows, by hatching* delicate tints over 
them ; put the light in the eye and the spirited touches 
about it. and the eyebrows, mouth, etc., and finish off the 
hair. In dark photographs you will require to lay the 



* Hatching is that effect which is produced by the crossings of tiie pencil, 
after you have given to the head all the larger washes, and must be done in the 
manner described above. To an inexperienced eye, hatching assumes the ap- 
pearance of a series of dots. 



154 PHOTOGRAPH PAINTING IN WATER COLORS. 

lights on the hair with body color, as it is generally much 
darker than it appears in nature. Make out the linen 
with a gray, deepening it in the darkest parts, and lay on 
the high lights with constant or Chinese white. Proceed 
next to shadow the drapery, and when you have ob- 
tained the required depth, scumble in the high lights, 
using a bare pencil and a very gentle hand, as before 
directed. 

Give the background another wash, if requisite, and 
your photograph is finished. 

If there be metal buttons, chains, or epaulets, they 
must be laid over the dress with body colors ; a very good 
ground for them is red chrome and gamboge, shadowed 
with burnt umber, and hightened on the lights with 
iemon chrome and Chinese white. 

By the foregoing method, it will be unnecessary to 
hatch or stipple a great deal, for you will find that the 
face will come out very soft and round without it ; but 
the effect is far inferior to that produced by the other 
process. 

Prepared Ox-gall. — It is necessary to have a little of 
the above preparation, but be sparing in your use of it. 
Too much of it in the colors will cause them to sink 



PHOTOGRAPH PAINTING IN WATER COLORS. 155 

into the paper, and there is no possibility of getting them 
out again, nor can you wash over the parts to any advan- 
tage. Ox-gall can only be of use in the first coloring, to 
kill the grease; after the photograph has been fairly 
covered all over, there can be little to apprehend on that 
point. 

When the paper is greasy, and you find a diffi- 
culty in getting a tint to run smoothly, rub the point 
of your pencil on the gall, and mix it up in the 
color. 

Painting Photographs in Oil — To meet the wishes of 
those who are anxious to obtain an insight into the pro- 
cess of painting photographs in oil, the following direc- 
tions are offered : Care has been taken to render them 
plain, concise, and as general in their application as pos- 
sible. But it must be remembered that the art of paint- 
ing is not to be acquired even from the best treatises, by 
the most accomplished masters, while, in this trifling 
sketch, all that is sought to be conveyed is to initiate the 
tyro into a method. 

A few lessons by an experienced hand, and assiduous 
study on the student's part, will, in a short time, do more 
than twenty books could accomplish. 



156 PHOTOGRAPH PAINTING IN OIL COLORS. 



REQUISITES FOR OIL PAINTING. 



White, 

Naples Yellow, 
Yellow Ocher, 
Brown Ocher, 
Raw Sienna, 
Burnt Sienna, 
Light Red, 
Venetian Red, 
Vermilion, 
Indian Red, 
Purple Lake, 
Crimson Lake, 
Rose Madder, 
Ultramarine, 
Cobalt, 
Prussian Blue, 



A BOX OF TUBE COLORS COXTAINIXG, 

Purple :Madder, 
Raw Umber, 
Burnt Umber, 



Vandyke Brown, 
Terre Verte, 
Emerald Green, 
Ivory Black, 
Palette and Knife, 
Sables, 
Softeners, 
Pale Drj-uig Oil, 
Mastic, 
Megilp, 
Turpentine, 
Poppy Oil. 



How to prepare the Photograph. — Get some size, and 
melt it in a dish over a slow fire ; when it is dissolved, 
strain it through flannel into a soup plate, and immerse 
the photograph in it. When it is suflficiently saturated 
with the size, take it out and let it dry, then paste it 
down on card-board, and it is ready for use. Another 
method : Dip a flat camel-hair tool into the size, and go 



PHOTOGRAPH PAINTING IN OIL COLORS. 157 

over both sides of the photograph. If it be insuffi- 
ciently prepared, the colors will sink in those parts where 
there is a paucity of size, and you must give it another 
coat. 

Oil Colors. — The following is a table of tints in very 
general use with artists ; but it must, however, be 
clearly understood that they are capable of many mod- 
ifications to meet almost every variety of color observable 
in nature. Portraits of ladies, but children more espe- 
cially, require the tints for the first and subsequent paint- 
ings to be kept exceedingly delicate and pearly ; for the 
adult male head the colors must be more powerful. 

TABLE OF TINTS FOR THE FIBST PAINTING. 



TVliite and Light Red. I Deep Shades 

White, Naples Yellow, and Ver- Ught Red and Raw Umber. 

milion. 
"NMiite and Naples Yellow. 
"White, Vermilion, and Light Red. 

Gray, Pearly, and Half Tints. 
White, Vermilion, and Black. 
"White and Terre Verte. 
^^^lite, Black, Indian Red, and 
Raw Umber. 
14 



Indian Red, Lake, and Black. 

Car?iations. 
Wliite and Indian Red, (powerful 

color.) 
WTiite and Rose Madder. 
White and Lake. 



158 PHOTOGRAPH PAINTING IN OIL COLORS. 



HAIR. 



Light Hair. 
White and Yellow Ocher. 
White and Roman Ocher. 
White and Vandyke Brown, for 
the dark parts. 



TMiite and Raw Umber for the 
dark parts. 

Dark Brown Hair. 
Raw and Burnt Umber. 
White and Raw Umber. 
White, Vandyke Brown. 



First Painting. — Lay out the palette in the following 
order: Place the lightest flesh tints nearest the right 
hand ; next in succession those having more color in 
them ; then the middle and shade tints ; and lastly, the 
pure colors. Use megilp * as a vehicle, if you wish to 
paint thinly, and add a little turpentine to it. 

Begin by laying on the high lights, gradually descend- 
ing into the more florid parts, till you arrive at the mid- 
dle tones, which in their turn descend into the shadows. 
Lay the color on the lights of some consistency, but let 
the shadows be thin. 

Be careful not to work the lights about with your 
brush, but lay them on boldly and full. Put in a gray 
tint for the white of the eye, and paint the iris and pupil 
upon it. Take a warm shade color, and mark out the 
features, and lay in the lips with a tint considerably 

* Megilp is composed of drying oil and mastic varnish ; stir gently together till 
they incorporate, and let the mixture remain until it becomes thick. 



PHOTOGRAPH PAINTING IN OIL COLORS. 159 

under nature ; indeed, it is necessary to force up the 
whole of the coloring to allow for it sinking in drying. 
Proceed to the hair and eyebrows, lay in the shades, and 
after them the lights, define the draperies in the like 
way, and rub in the background, beginning with the 
lightest part. When you have got on thus far, take a 
softener — a badger's hair tool — and go gently over the 
whole of the face to round it, and make the various tints 
blend into, and unite with, each other. 

Second Painting. — Having allowed the picture ten or 
twelve hours to dry, the next operation will be preparing 
it for the second painting. 

Take a sponge •" moderately charged with water, and 
go gently over all the work ; when it is dry, dip a brush 
in poppy oil, and again go over the surface ; then wipe off 
the superfluous oil with a piece of soft silk as gently as 
you applied it. This is termed " oiling out," and is 
done that the subsequent paintings may unite with the 
first, Xevertheless, it is frequently omitted ; but wash- 
ing with the sponge cannot be dispensed with, for without 
it, the glazes will not lie, but curdle on the picture. 

* Breathe upon tlie surface of the picture. If it becomes dull ormisty, you 
mny f?afely use the sponge ; but if the breath does not affect it, do not go on — it 
is not dry enough. 



160 PHOTOGRAPH PAINTING IN OIL COLORS. 



TABLE OF TINTS FOR THE SECOND AND THIRD 
PAINTING.* 

High Lights. — "SMiite and Naples yeUow. 

Carnations. — Rose madder and white. Indian red, rose madder, 
and Avhite. 

Green Tints. — "White and ultramarine with any of the yellows. 
White and terre verte, with the addition of a little raw umber. 
The above green tints may be converted into green grays. 

Gray Tints. — Ultramarine, light red, and Avhite. Indian red, lake, 
black, and white. White, ultramarine, Indian red, and raw umber. 

Purple Tints. — Any of the lakes, or red madders, Avith ultra- 
marine and white. 

Powerful Shadoio Tints Indian red, purple lake, and black. 

Indian red, raw umber, and black. 

Strong Glazing Colors Light red and lake. Brown madder. 

Vandyke brown, Indian red, and lake asphaltum. 

Proceed now to improve the lights, yellows, and florid 
tones, M'ith tints that approach your model ; then glaze 
the shadows where they are wanting in depth and color. 

The alterations, which at this stage are necessary, 
should be made with the shade tint, your own judg- 
ment guiding you to the requisite depth of color for 
that purpose. Look carefully over all the photograph, 

* These and the following tints might be increased aXmoai ad infinitum ; but 
it is better to present only a few to the learner, as a great number would only 
serve to bewilder hira. 



PHOTOGRAPH PAINTING IN OIL COLORS. 161 

and put in some of the spirited touches about the eyes, 
mouth, etc. Then improve the gray and pearly tints, 
(those about the mouth and eyes require very delicate 
handling,) and blend them into their proximate colors 
with a softener. Next look to the reflexes, which are 
to be painted, if possible, without any white in them. 
Soften the outline of the head with the background, so 
as to take off every appearance of hardness, remembering 
that there should be no such thing as a sharp outline in 
the face ; a glance at a plain photograph will at once 
show this to you. The lines of the eyes, mouth, and 
nostrils must also be carefully blended ; but they must 
not be rendered too soft, or they will impart an air of 
insipidity to the countenance. 

Third Painting. — Having proceeded thus far, it will 
be necessary to sponge the picture again. Scumble over 
the lights again where necessary, improve still further 
the luminous tints, and look to the glazing and reflexes. 
In finishing the carnations, as little white as possible 
should enter into their composition ; and they, together 
with the lights, should be laid on with a fine pencil, and 
a quick and decided touch, keeping them pure from the 
preceding colors. Soften all the parts which appear 
14* 



162 PHOTOGRAPH PAINTING IN OIL COLORS. 

crude or hard, and finish off the background and 
draperies. The hands require a flesh tint similar to 
the face, and the same gray and pearly tints are used 
for them. If extreme finish be aimed at, you may re- 
touch your work several times, allowing it to dry be- 
tween every retouching. 

Draperies. — The scale of colors is nearly the same 
as for water; but, instead of gamboge, yellow ocher 
and ocher yellows are used, and Prussian blue is taken 

for indigo. 

The shades, being laid in, are met by the half tones 
and lights, and are blended with a softener. The shad- 
ows are then finished by glazing, and the lights by 
scumbling over them. 

Background Colors. Pear/y. — ^Tiite, vermiHon, and blue. 
AMiite, vermilion, and black. 'SMiite and black. 

Gray. — "SMiite, Venetian red, and black. 

Yellow. — Yellow ochre and white. 

Olive Yellow ocher, terre verte, and umber. 

Sfoti£. — Raw umber and yellow. Black, white, and raw umber. 

SA-y. — French blue and white, French blue, vermilion, and 
white. 

Edges of Clouds. — Yellow ocher and white. 

Clouds. Indian red, lake, black, and white. Brown madder, 
French blue, and white. 



Oriental fainting. 



(163) 




^. AY tlie glass, cut to the form you 

k1 require, on a smooth table, with the 
design underneath, usually flowers, birds, and frequently, 
when wanted for a table stand, forms for chess playing 
are used, gilt, etc. Then take a fine badger, or camel's 
hair pencil, and with the color you would have the ground 
when done, trace the outline of each figure not joined by 
another color ; such must be traced with the color you 

(165) 



166 ORIENTAL PAINTING. 

would have the figure ; as, green, if a leaf or stem ; for 
rose or flower, the color of the rose or flower. After 
this has been traced out as perfectly as possible, shade 
the leaves by laying thicker coats when you would have 
it darker. This will be easy, as you have only to fol- 
low the pattern. Also make the veins with a darker 
shade, tipping the edge with the same. A little practice 
will show where efl"ect can best be obtained. Now put 
on your ground, which should be composed of fine white 
picture varnish, or, what is better, our Outside varnish, 
colored with any dry or tube oil colors. If black, lamp- 
black may be used ; it should be well ground. After 
this is thoroughly dry, lay on and confine with this same 
mixture, tin foil, or tinsel, either smooth or crimpled. 
Pearl is frequently used in the Oriental style ; yet a per- 
son well practiced can imitate it perfectly with the foil, 
which is much cheaper. Cover the whole with black, or 
very dark cambric, confined with the same mixture. 

The colors used must be transparent, or nearly so ; 
oil tube colors will answer, or powders mixed well with 
Outside varnish. The lakes are all transparent, eme- 
rald green, raw and burnt sienna, and others which any 
artist colorman will inform vou when buying your colors. 



ORIENTAL PAINTING. 167 

We have published, for Oriental painting, two fine 
copies ; one, a handsome wreath, with fountain, birds, 
etc. ; the other, an elegant vase of flowers, with birds' 
iiests, birds, butterflies, etc. ; price, one dollar the pair, 
post-paid, on a roller, to any address. Also, two smaller 
ones, that will combine with the vase and wreath to 
make innumerable combinations, or may be used sepa- 
rately ; price, forty cents the pair ; or we will send 
the four ou one roll for $1.25, post-paid. A fine 
copy for chess-tables has just beeu added to the list, 
the design of which is very beautiful ; price, eighty 
cents. 

For gold lines, etc., draw with the varnish, as if paint, 
and when dry to a tack, lay on gold leaf, or rub on gold 
bronze of any color. If bronze is used, apply as soon as 
varnished. Gold work, in most cases, should be left till 
the last. 

The publishers of this book have put up, under their 
personal -obsefvation, boxes of dry colors, assorted colors 
in bottles, suitable for Oriental painting, which they 
seud by mail for $1.25. This method has proved very 
satisfactory. 

Prof. Day's Method. — Oriental painting on glass 



168 ORIENTAL PAINTING. 

is SO called from its capability of producing effects of 
coloring equal to the colors of Oriental flowers, and the 
plumage of Oriental birds. This beautiful, showy, and 
gorgeous style of painting never fails to attract admirers 
wherever it has been introduced. No style of painting 
has yet been invented that shows transparent colors to 
such advantage as this, when properly and carefully done. 
If the purest transparent colors are to be used, and mixed 
with the lightest varnish, and the lights and shades of the 
flowers carefully attended to, and any light body (even 
paper) put at the back of the glass, the painting will 
show with good effect ; but when the brilliancy of 
the color is reflected back by means of the brightly 
planished silver foil, every shade of tone is made to 
yield its otherwise concealed beauty, making this style 
of painting well adapted to reflect the many splendid 
colors nature has in store for the admirer of flowers 
and showy plumage of birds. 

Directions. — Procure ten thimbles, large size and long; ten 
buttons to fit on the top ; a piece of wood ten inches long, two 
wide, one thick ; bore ten holes in it in which to fit the thimbles, 
A jmiyxt stand can be made of tin, or in a box, or in any other 
way that will suggest itself to the convenience and ingenuity 
of the artist. A ground glass slab, from six to eight inches 



ORIENTAL PAINTING. 169 

square, on which to mix the colors ; a palette knife, four inch 
blade, (rather stiff is preferable ; it muxes up the color better ;) 
a bottle of copal varnish, and one of turpentine ; set of mix- 
ing colors ; all of which may be had from the publishers of 
this work. 

To commence a picture, procure a glass the size you wish, then 
get a clear outline drawing on white paper, and fit it on your glass ; 
next prepare a little lampblack (lampblack is not down in the 
list of colors, because it is readily procured) by mixing it on your 
glass slab with copal varnish, using sufficient varnish to make a 
semi-transparent or neutral color, thinning it a Httle with turpentine 
if necessary, and put it into one of the thimbles. Take a crow 
quill brush, with hairs about five eighths of an inch long, and 
with the neutral black trace every line, and mark off your draw- 
ing on the glass. This is a long and tedious affair, if the design 
is large and compHcated, and to look well requires to be done 
neatly. Next, all the little stems, and fine tracery work of weeds, 
etc., that is sometimes introduced to take off the crowded appear- 
ance of a group of flowers ; pencil in with opaque green made of 
chrome yellow and a little Prussian blue, (directions for mLxing are 
on an advance page ;) sometimes a little bronze is introduced in the 
same way for variety ; for this, mix a little bronze with copal varnish, 
put it on with the same brush as you used for the green work and 
outlining ; sometimes a dot of scarlet mixed with varnish is put on, 
or pale blue, made of white and blue. This being done, see that the 
glass io free from finger marks, and commence the groundwork with 
lampblack mixed with copal varnish, going carefully around the 
design, avoiding all the parts you wish to paint with transparent 
colors ; the small work done with the opaque colors can be gone 
over with the black. ^VTien you have gone over it once, hold it up 
15 



170 ORIENTAL PALNTING. 

to the light, and you will perceive it full of places not sufficiently 
covered ; touch all such again, to make it perfectly solid. When 
all this is done, it is ready for the transparent colors on the flow- 
ers, which are, of course, varied according to the design. To make 
scarlet flowers : coat over the flowers about three times with piire 
yellow lake, then once or twice with crimson lake, according to 
the intensity of the shade ; make the deeper shades by adding a 
httle blue in the crunson lake. Yellow flowers: paint with a 
weak shade of yellow lake, and the shades by adding a very little 
burnt sienna with it. Blue flowers : use light blue ; and for the 
deep shades add a little Prussian blue. Purple flowers : purple 
made of crimson lake and Prussian blue, according to the tint 
required ; a very delicate purple is obtained by mixing rose pink 
and a little light blue. Pink roses and geraniums : use rose pink, 
and for the deeper shades add a little crimson lake. "White flowers : 
use a neutral on the shaded parts composed of a litde Vandyke 
brown and a little blue, diluted with varnish to suit the tint re- 
quired ; the high lights of white flowers are left clear glass, and 
sometimes for small flowers a little opaque white is introduced on 
the high lights to imitate pearl. Real p^arl is often put on ; but 
this will be referred to again. Stamens of flowers are done with 
Vandj'ke brown ; anthers sometimes with chrome yellow and a 
little burnt sieima mixed with them, and sometimes yellow lake, 
dotted with burnt sienna. Green leaves are stained with transpar- 
ent green, made with yellow lake and Prussian blue ; a good deal 
of yellow lake if a yellow green is required, and not so much if a 
cold blue gi-een is wanted. Autumnal greens : add a little burnt 
sienna. The leaves are painted over two or three times in the 
parts that are wanted darker, also the deep shades against flowers, 
where the leaf goes under a flower. Use a little Vandyke bro-v^Ti 
vnth. the gi-een. 'SMien the painting is fiaiished, it is better to allow 



ORIENTAL PAINTL\G. 171 

it to remain a few days before putting on the foil. "WTien it is suf- 
ficiently dry, if you wish to introduce any pearl, select the white 
flowers, because there is a portion of the glass left clear, and the 
pearl shows to advantage. The pearl must be cut pretty near the 
shape of the flower, and two or three dots of clear varnish put on ; 
then it is to be fitted to the flower, and left for a few hours to dry. 
Sometimes it is well to put a weight on, then fix on the foil and 
fasten it with black putty, or some of your black that is left 
from your coating. Cover the entire piece with a board, and let 
it remain a few hours ; or if you are going to frame it, put it im- 
mediately in the frame, and the back board wiU. keep it in its place ; 
or if it is a table, the back of the table -will answer the same 
purpose ; if neither, take a strong piece of brown paper and cover 
it, pasting carefully round the edges, and make it stick fast. 

Observatioxs Be sure that the glass is well cleaned before 

beginning. All fine stems, and fine work that is intended to be 
done with opaque color or bronze, has no occasion to be touched in 
the outlining. 

Directions fok mixixg Colors. — Be careful to have the glass 
slab clean and free from dust — also the palette knife ; then put 
on the glass as much of the powder color as you think you may 
want ; put enough copal or outside varnish to it to make it absorb 
all the color and flow easily, and mix by moving it round and 
round, with a little pressure upon it, so as to make fine all the 
little color particles that are visible ; occasionally add turpentine 
to thin it, and mix again. When it is sufficiently fine, put it into 
one of the thimbles. All the colors are mixed in the same way. 
If you are to use most or all of the transparent colors at one sit- 
ting, the best plan will be to mix them as follows : yellow lake 
first, then burnt sienna, then Vandyke bro-wm. These three colors, 
if mixed in this order, can be mixed without cleaning the glass, 



172 ORIENTAL PAINTING. 

because the yellow lake which would remain on the glass after 
scraping it up to put in the thinible would not injure the sienna, 
nor would the sienna injure Vandyke brown. The glass must be 
thoroughly cleaned for rose pink ; then mix crimson lake ; then 
clean your glass for light blue, then Prussian blue. When you 
mix white, the glass must be rubbed until it is perfectly clean. 
Chrome yellow can be mLxed after white without cleaning. In 
mixing yellow lake, rose pink, crimson lake, and white, the glass 
must be as clean as if color had never been upon it. This can 
easily be done by rubbing it with turpentine and a clean rag. We 
are particular in detailing this, and in trAing to impress upon the 
artist the necessity of having all the colors pure, especially the four 
colors named above ; likewise to have them well mixed, free from 
all particles of color. All this must be strictly attended to, in 
order that the paintmg may look well. Some colors require 
more varnish than others. Yellow lake, rose pink, blue, and 
crimson lake require about the same ; the three opaque colors, 
chrome yellow, -white, and scarlet, a little more ; Vandyke brown, 
sienna, and Prussian blue require still more. Prussian blue and 
crimson lake are the most difficult colors to mix, and more time 
for mixing should be allowed. 

In the absence of a glass slab, a clean white china plate — as 
smooth a one as can be chosen — is a very good substitute. Nine 
of the thimbles are now occupied. In the tenth put in some clear 
varnish, as it is useful and convenient to dip your brush in when 
you A^'ish to reduce any shade — that is, make it lighter. It is not 
necessary to have a thimble for green, as there is so little used ; 
you can make it from the thimbles as you require it. In painting, 
when a light shad? is required, u'se a little more varnish with your 
color ; and when your color becomes thick, always thin it with 



ORIENTAL PAINTING. 173 

turpentine. By attending to these two remarks, much trouble 
■will be saved, as the evaporation of the turpentine is continually 
going on, and the paint gradually becomes too thick for use. 
After painting, if you do not wish your thimbles again for some 
time, put a drop of clean turpentine on each color, then carefully 
press the buttons on so as to exclude the air. Thus the colors will 
keep good for several days. The black for the groundwork is 
made of lampblack mixed with copal or Outside varnish, and had 
better be put in something larger than a thimble, as so much of it 
is used. (It can be had of the publishers of this work at twenty- 
five cents per bottle.) Lampblack is a common color, and may be 
purchased any where ; or you can make it yourself, by lighting a 
common oil lamp, make it smoke well, put a tin shade over it, and 
the collected particles on the shade make the best lampblack. 

For variet}'. Oriental painting is sometimes grounded with 
white, or other light tints, similar to those enumerated in Poticho- 
mania. In doing these, much greater care is requisite, owing to 
the delicate grounding ; and, instead of outlining with the neutral 
tints, it is better to outline with burnt sienna. Greater care is 
likewise necessary in cleaning the glass, as any finger mark will 
show, when coated with white. Foil is sometimes wrinkled or 
crumpled between the fingers very much, before applying it. We 
prefer to use it plain. 

Sometimes leaf gold is introduced. To do this, a size must be 
made of isinglass ; a very weak solution is sufficient — about one 
inch strip of common isinglass to a teacup of hot water ; when 
thoroughly dissolved, strain and use it cold. The part you design 
to gild must be floated with this water ; then get a •' gilder's tip," 
(a technical term for a long, thin-haired, flat brush ;) have your 
leaf gold all ready ; draw the tip down between your hand and 

15* 



174 ORIENTAL PAINTING. 

cheek, for the purpose of giving to the tip a little electric heat, 
which causes the leaf gold to be slightly attracted ; when on the 
tip, you can place it readily where you please. ^Vhen you have 
applied all the gold you wish, slightly elevate your picture to let 
the water drain off, and when completely dry, you can remove any 
part you do not wish to have gilded, with a little moisture. That 
which you wish to remain, you can paint over with black ; or, if 
you wish the gold to show on both sides, as is sometimes required 
in other gildmg, such as lettering, you may then varnish it with 
clear Outside varnish. Some persons object to the foQ at the back 
of the Oriental, thinking it too glaring. This glare can be obvi- 
ated by means of the gold. For this process, when your painting 
is quite finished, float it well Avith the isinglass size, and use pale 
gold by means of the tip. It has a very good effect, and shows the 
transparent colors to good advantage, but not so brilliant as the foil. 

Hoiv to paint the neic Pattern for a Chess Table. — 
This has been made to use either as a square or round. 
The squares had better be finished first, and a very 
pretty way to do this is to draw with gold size the lines 
around outside of the squares, and also around each 
square, very fine, with a hair pencil, and after it has dried 
about twelve hours, lay on gold leaf, as directed for 
gilding: first press, then rub off with a cotton ball the 
superfluous gold, or, if you choose, draw the lines with 
the Outside or copal varnish, and apply fine gold bronze 
directly. The squares may then be filled in with opaque 



ORIENTAL PAINTING. 175 

colors — say vermilion and black, or black and white, 
or as fancy may direct, or the squares may be laid in 
gold and silver bronze. The light squares may be fixed 
to imitate pearl, as directed before ; in fact, there ara 
innumerable ways to complete even these simple squares. 
Now you should draw the line in the same way as 
directed for the squares around the circle ; and if you 
use the pattern as a square, make the lines about the out- 
side of the whole, as seen in the design ; these lines may 
be gilded or silvered like the others, or varnished. It 
will improve the whole to draw very finely a black line 
outside of these last, after the gold or silver is dry. 

The beautiful designs used to fill up the blanks may be 
finished in the antique style, (see proper page,) which 
would be very fine and more simple ; or they may be 
painted in the Oriental style, as the other. If in the 
Antique style, cut out the part as curved carefully, and 
prepare one part at a time, using great care not to rub 
through on the light parts. If you conclude on Oriental 
method, paint as follows : — 

The cottage and landscape at the top we need hardly 
speak of, as even a common artist knows the colors that 
will be best. Draw the lines as we have directed 



176 ORIENTAL PAINTING. 

before for the outlines, then shade by laying more coats 
of the colors used for darker tints, placing the pearl 
or foil under, and fixing the whole. It will be well to 
experiment on another piece of glass first, so as to be 
sure you are right as to colors, and not to injure your 
other work. The parrot and peacock will look beauti- 
fully, admitting the brilliant colors which nature allows 
them, touched as your pattern directs, which is shaded to 
give lights and shades natural to the colors used. For the 
race at the bottom we would give the same simple direc- 
tions as for the cottage, etc., at the top. Draw in the 
outlines, and shade neatly, covering all with the foil. 

The scrolls in the corners, if you use the whole as a 
square instead of a round, should be drawn in with 
black for the darkest parts, and shaded with sienna and 
yellow lake, the white parts left till the last, when they 
should be gilded as directed for the squares. After this is 
dry, cover with a background, and the color of the tint 
on the patten will be rich and pretty. 

Another fine Way to use this Chess Patten. — Have a 
small table made of the proper size, and varnish the top 
several times after each drying, rubbing well with fine sand 
paper to get a good surface, or, have the table finished at 



ORIENTAL PAINTING. 177 

the cabinet shop ; then you will only have to polish it 
well for use. Now varnish with the Antique varnish, and 
treat as directed in the Antique painting ; rub off all the 
paper, leaving the print only ; do this carefully, as if on 
the glass. Touch up with proper colors, bronze and var- 
nish over the whole with Outside varnish or best copal, 
and you will have a splendid piece of furniture, the 
beauty of which depends on the care and skill of the 
artist. 

Another heautiful way is to do the whole in the Gre- 
cian style, touching up on the face with bright colors, 
bronze, etc. ; glue or paste to the table or board, and 
varnish and finish. 

The paper is prepared and the drawing made for all 
these styles, and many others will suggest themselves to 
the ingenious. 

A new Way of pointing on Rice Paper. — Make the 
outline with a dark lead pencil, on clear and perfect white 
paper, the same as for Oriental painting ; place the rice 
paper on the top of it, and proceed to paint with the 
transparent colors mixed with varnish in the same manner 
as for Oriental : opaque colors can also be used. No 
difficulty will be found in painting on rice paper with the 



178 ORIENTAL PAINTING. 

varnisli colors, and the paper will not wrinkle as it does 
with water colors. 

The inventive mind and the imagination of the artist 
will suggest many pleasing combinations of the Oriental 
studies published by us. For instance, the fountain can 
be taken out from the center of the wreath, and the 
basket of flowers substituted in its place. Practice of 
this kind is fine exercise, stimulating the inventive fac- 
ulties, and giving the artist a happy facility in different 
styles of ornamental work. In our limited space, we 
can only give hints, without entering into the minute 
details. But from the principles laid down, the apt 
scholar will easily make pleasing progress. 



fainting 0n ihss 



(179) 



^agk f aiitern. 



NWV 





LACE the glass upon whatever you wish 
to paint, whether a colored design or 
only a sketch, and outline with your fine brush and 
neutral black in the same manner as for Oriental, and 
paint them in with your transparent colors, the same 
as used in Oriental painting. If it is a landscape, 
make the distant mountains (if any) with a pale shade 
of blue and crimson lake ; at a later painting add a 
16 (181) 



182 PAINTING ON GLASS. 

little yellow lake, and repeat with these three colors in 
different proportions until the effect required is produced. 
Paint the foliage with yellow lake and a little blue. For 
autumnal foliage, add a little burnt sienna; stems of 
trees, Vandyke brown and burnt sienna ; flesh tints make 
with yellow lake, crimson lake, and burnt sienna, reduced 
very much with varnish. The coloring generally must be 
painted strong, as it is to be magnified very much when 
exhibited on the disk. Paint the clouds pale blue, and 
dab the paint, while wet, with a bit of cotton rolled into a 
light ball. This process, if done with care, has a very 
soft, fleecy effect. 



lainling on ^xmrin §lmB. 



-^■""'•^ 



,...!:t 








1 


1 

u 


m^ 




^fc 


L/— ^ 




HIS is a very useful style of painting, 
as articles of every- day need can be 
made beautiful and artistic, such as lamp shades, 
glass doors, vases, and in fact any thing for which 
ground glass is used. The same transparent colors 
are used that have already been mentioned, mixed 
with varnish. Commence with making a very faint 
outline with a hard lead pencil, drawing out the 

(183) 



184 PAINTING ON GROUND GLASS. 

design you wish to paint ; then proceed to paint the 
flowers or birds in precisely the same way as laid down 
for Oriental painting. Be careful, in this style, not to 
have any of the outline visible. Landscapes can be done 
with very good effect on ground glass by proceeding 
according to the method of bronze painting. All the 
difference is painting on ground glass instead of bronze 
ground. Wreaths of flowers around globe shades for 
gas or solar lamps look very well. 






ANY small signs are now done in the Oriental 
style. For this method, make a clear and 
^/7) correct outline of the letters, if you are not 
familiar with printing or lettering ; then re- 
verse it. This can be best done by placing 
it against the window, and marking over all the letters 
clearly and distinctly on the wrong side. Now fit the 
glass on this side of your paper, and commence marking 
out the letters with black. (Supposing it to be for a 
black ground, your paint can in this case either be 
mixed with varnish, as in Oriental, or oil paints.) After 
they are all marked out, fill in the remaining part of the 
uncovered glass. AVhen the black is sufiiciently dry, 
you can fasten on the pearl, or the silver foil, in the 
16* (185) 



186 SIGN PAINTING. 

same manner as for the Oriental. If it is desired to 
have the foil wrinkled, rub it between the hands to 
crumple it. Sometimes the letters are partially scum- 
hied ; that is, opaque color, reduced with megilp, and 
shaded on ; sometimes stained with the different trans- 
parent colors, the same as in painting the flowers in Ori- 
ental work ; then put on the foil. 

If other tints of grounding, more delicate than black, 
are desired, consult the tints we have given for Poti- 
chomania ; any of these will do, always observing that 
the letters must be outlined with the same tint. Signs 
in this style can likewise be done in the antique trans- 
fer method, with open letters. After the paper is re- 
moved, coat over with the grounding preferred, and 
apply the silver foil. 

Gilding for Signs. — Gilding for out- door work re- 
quires a stronger size than for other gilding ; the size 
for this is best made of drying oil, the old and fat 
being the best ; chrome yellow or white lead mixed 
with it, sufficient to color it and give it a little more body. 
We have a fine article at seventy-five cents per bottle. 
It will take from twelve to twenty-four hours to dry, 
according to the weather, before it is ready for the 
leaf gold. 



Antique famtrng 011 ilass. 




[ROCURE the first quality of German 
or French glass, (cut quarter of an 
inch larger all round than the picture, to allow for 
framing,) and make it perfectly clean ; apply with 
a stiff brush a very thin coat of Antique varnish,* 



* The Antique Varnish is made only by us, and will have our name on each 
bottle. Any not so lal)eled is an imitation, and probably worthless. It can ho 
had of us, or at any artists' material store. 



(187) 



188 ANTIQUE PAINTING ON GLASS. 

which will be thoroughly dry in six hours. Then 
apply another coat of the same, thin and very equal 
and smooth ; allow this to dry about one hour, until 
nearly dry, strongly adhering to the finger when touched, 
but not sticky. Then put on the engraving, (having 
damped it thoroughly with warm water, not too wet, 
absorbing the extra moisture with a cloth or blotting 
paper,) with the face to the varnish side of the glass ; 
press it gently until every part adheres to the surface ; 
rub carefully with the finger a part of the paper, being 
sure not to rub through the engraving. After it has 
dried twelve hours, wet again, and rub off all the paper, 
leaving only the engraving. When again dry, moisten 
carefully with fine bleached drying oil. It is then ready 
for painting. The colors will strike through very freely, 
as there is no paper left, and will not spot as the Gre- 
cian is liable to do. Do not use any tvirpentine in 
this style. The directions are the same as for Grecian 
painting, except more pains should be taken to shade 
and blend in the colors, to help the shading in the en- 
graving, particularly the flesh color with the hair. It 
will be found that fine transparencies may be made as 
above. The glass, after it is prepared for painting, re- 
sembles ground glass. 



lapier lTiu|e. 



(189) 



,\ v^ iiiiiiYiUiyL 



^■f^''f\\ 




APIER MACHE work, as practiced in 
England, is not confined to one style 
of painting, but combines oil, varnish, transfer, Oriental, 
bronze, gilding, raising, enamel, pearling, and others. 
We propose to treat each one under a separate head, so 
as to be better understood. 

Papier mache painting dates its origin from the Chi- 
nese method of bronzing and gilding on lacquered ware 

(191) 



192 PAPIER MACHE. 

but has undergone so many changes and improvements, 
that in some branches bronze and gilding have little or 
nothing to do with it, and a complete change has taken 
place. Flower painting with varnish colors has been intro- 
duced with splendid effect ; birds, with a gorgeous array 
of brilliant plumage, contributing to make the style attrac- 
tive. An impetus was given to papier mache manufac- 
turers as a good remunerative trade ; the ornamental 
department had to keep pace with it ; superior artistic 
talent was called for, and in this splendid and superb 
work the artist had another avenue opened for his 
skill. A new style of bronze painting, with landscape 
designs, was introduced, and combination designs of land- 
scape, flowers, and birds soon found their way to the 
public eye. Papier mache, (when well made,) being a 
compact, unyielding body, capable of being wrought by 
skillful workmen into a variety of useful and ornamental 
articles, soon found its way into general favor, until 
it may be said that no boudoir or drawing room is 
fashionably furnished without papier mache holding a 
perspicuous situation, to reflect the taste of the pro- 
prietor. 

We do not intend to give a minute description of the 



PAPIER MACHE. 



193 



method of manufacture — it would be foreign to our 
purpose ; but as we are to write pretty fully concern- 
ing the ornamentation, we will give a theoretical glance 
at it. There are two ways of making it ; one, making 
it with sheets of paper ; the other, with pulp, as the 
name implies. To make the sheet, absorbent paper is 
employed, and the sheets pasted together with a paste 
composed of flour and glue, upon moulds of the re- 
quired shape, then put into stoves, or hot rooms, as 
they are called, heated to about 200° Farenheit, or more ; 
when dry, they are taken from the moulds and staeped 
in oil, and allowed to absorb as much as they will take, 
and put again into the hot room ; let them remain there 
until perfectly dry ; then the fabric is ready to be dressed, 
as the technical term is — in other words, it is worked by 
cabinet makers like wood, and wrought into the required 
shapes ; then coated with black varnish, or varnish paint, 
the color desired; hardened again in a hot room of about 
150° Fahrenheit, then rubbed smooth with pumice sand 
and polished with rottenstone. In the other way, the 
paper is reduced to a pulp with water; the water 
strained from it when the paper is sufficiently soft, and 
paste and glue mixed with it; the pulp is then ready 



194 PAPIER MACHE. 

to put into moulds, with great pressure, hardened, and 
finished off in various ways. 

The flower painting on papier mache is frequently called enamel 
painting. The style of painting -when acquired can as readily be 
painted on prepared wood, iron, tin, paper, etc., as papier mache. 
The colors to be used are precisely the same as those enumerated 
for the Oriental, and are mixed in the same way. To com- 
mence a painting, make a correct outline of the picture on 
thin white paper, rub some of your white powder all over the 
back of it, and trace the design on your picture with the end of 
one of your pencil sticks cut to a sharp point ; when you have 
carefully traced in all the design, remove the paper, and you have 
your picture drawn out, transferred, as it were. Now, with your 
white mixed according to directions in another page, coat over all 
the flowers (retaining the shape) thmly with white, and by the 
tune you have finished the last one the first will be dry enough for 
another coat. Each flower should have three coats of white to 
make it solid. The flowers that are mtended for yeUow should 
now be coated over once entirely with chrome yellow, and the 
scarlet flowers once over with the opaque scarlet ; the leaves 
must next be penciled in with opaque green made with chrome 
yellow, a little white, and some Prussian blue ; go over the 
whole with a middle tint first ; then use more white and yel- 
low, and put on some lighter tints where you wish the hghts to be. 
For stems and fine work use the same colors. Transparent colors 
are next to be ready, and it is better in this stage of the painting 
to allow a day to intervene before proceeding further. Paint pink 
roses and geraniums with rose pink ; the darker shades with 
crimson lake ; dark red flowers ^^ith crimson lake ; for darker 
shades, use a little blue with the crimson lake. For blue flowers 



PAPIER MACHE. 195 

use light blue in the light shades, and finish the darker parts by 
adding a little of the Prussian blue ; for delicate pui-ple flowers 
use rose pink and a little light blue ; for stronger and darker pur- 
ples, use crimson lake and Prussian blue ; for yellow flowers, use 
a pale shade of burnt sienna ; for scarlet, use crimson lake in 
difierent degrees of strength ; for the darker shades it will be 
requisite to use the full strength of the crimson lake, and for 
still darker add the least touch of blue ; white flowers must be 
shaded delicately with neutral tint made of yellow lake, crimson 
lake, and blue, weakened very much with varnish ; or another neu- 
tral is made with Vandyke brown and light blue, likewise weak- 
ened very much with varnish. The shades of all the flowers must 
be repeated until finished to suit the eye. The green leaves come 
next. They are coated over partially with transparent green made 
with yellow lake and Prussian blue ; the shades are varied and 
repeated according to the tints required. If a yellowish green, 
the yellow lake must predominate ; if a cooler and bluer green, use 
a little more blue ; for autumnal leaves, or withered ones, use burnt 
sienna and a little crimson lake, and a little yellow lake if requi- 
site. Some few darker shades will be requii-ed on some parts of 
the leaves, especially those that are underneath the flowers. To 
obtain this, use a little Vandyke brown and Prussian blue. The 
leaves are now ready for the veins ; do these with Vandyke brown 
and a little crimson lake with it ; the stamens to the flowers are 
painted in with the same color; the anthers do in with chrome 
yellow, and dot them with burnt sienna; the green leaves are 
finished by touching the veins Avith a faint outline, here and there, 
with chrome yellow against the veins already on. The flowers 
are all finished with this exception; some of them, especially 
the pink ones, may want a slight tinge of neutral (very pale) 
just against the edges, to soften them a little ; and a little white, 



196 



PAPIER MACHE. 



M-eakened .vith varnish, may be used to advantage just at the 
edges of flowers; it materially helps to break any Uttle abrupt- 
ness or harshness. 

. The paintmg is now finished, and should remain a week or more 
to dry before varnishing. The two sized brushes used for this 
kind of painting are a crow quill with the hair about five eighths 
of an inch long, and a duck quill about haK an inch long. 

To succeed well in Enaviel painting, we would advise the pupil 
to practice with the brush and Indian ink, the followmg figures. 




'^'^^^ 



In todking the first figure, you press the brush on your paper, 
draw it along a little gradually, decreasing the pressure until it 
terminates in a fine point; a few pages should be carefuUy made 



PAPIER MACHE. 



197 



of that one figure. The second is produced in the same manner, 
with one inclining to the right and one to the left ; make at least 
a page of these. The third figure is made of the same marks 
repeated, and brought close to each other. The fourth is the 




same. The fifth is the third and fourth combined, and is the way 
to form leaves. The sixth commences with the brush just touch- 
ing, then gradually pressing down a little, and tapering off again 
with light presstire. The seventh is the same but very small. 
These figures, when well practiced, greatly facihtate the free ma- 
17* 



198 



PAPIER MACHE. 



nipulation of all the first coating of Enamel painting. They can 
be practiced with India ink, or any common paints, as the 
object is simply to train the hand. The brush should be held 
nearly upright ; by so doing you have more command than 
■when it is at an angle suitable for writing. A variety of forms 
will suggest themselves to the artist. 



Bronzing. 




O prepare paper board for bronz- 
ing: Coat it over with a strong 
solution of size made by dis- 
solving isinglass in hot water ; 
strain it, and coat over the 
paper with a flat camel's hair 
brush while the size is warm. 
"When it is dry, coat it over 
thinly and evenly with gold 
size ; let it remain xmtil it feels 



sticky ; then apply the powder bronze with a dry, soft brush. 

To bronze metal plates, papier mache, and prepared wood boards : 
Have a smooth surface, coat it evenly, thoroughly, and thinly with 
gold size, using a flat camel's hair brush, (be sure it is clean 
and free from dust,) and be careful to cover every part. Allow 
it to dry until it feels sticky ; then apply the bronzes with a soft 
and dry camel's hair brush. AVhen you have covered it with 
bronze, by warming the article, and applying more bronze while 
it is warm, the bronze can be made much more solid, as warm- 
ing brings back the sticky property of the gold size, and causes 
more bronze to adhere to it. 



PAPIER MACHE, 



199 



Bronze Painting. 




ROCEED to bronze according to 
the directions under the head of 
Bronzing, only you can introduce 
a variety of shades of bronze, if 
you %vish. We invariably use 
three, if not more, \'iz., pale, 
blush, and white. Blend them 
together to suit your subject, and 
allow a couple of days to elapse 
before commencing to paint, so 
that it may dry. We will suppose it is a landscape, with moun- 
tains in the distance, water mid-distance, and foliage and building 
and figures in the foreground. Make a correct drawing of what 
you want, on thin white paper, rub some white on the back of it, 
fit it upon your picture, and mark over with the sharp end of a 
pencil stick, pressing on very lightly ; after all is drawn in, remove 
your sketch, and faintly mark over the lines with a lead pencil. 
If you are copying from an engra\ing, observe on what part of the 
building the light strikes, and select those parts for gold, coating 
them over with gold size, and putting on the leaf gold when suf- 
ficiently dry, (according to the directions already given.) If there 
are any parts of your figure (such as rich dresses) which you want 
rich color, do them at the same time with gold. The painting must 
now be wiped with a clean silk handkerchief, to remove aU the 
bits of gold and dust ; and supposmg that the thimble palette is 
ready, with all the colors mixed, according to the directions 
previously given, we first mix a pale tint of purple, made with 
Prussian blue and a Uttle crimson lake, and pencil over the moun- 



200 PAPIER MACHE. 

tains evenly, then go over the water with a very pale shade of 
blue. After coating the mountains and water once, it is better 
not to touch them again until they are dry. Now paint in the 
foliage, making the tints with yellow lake and Prussian blue ; if 
you want them bright, for the different shades add burnt sienna, or 
Vandyke brown, or both, as your tints require. Stems of trees 
are mostly done with Vandyke brown, and other tints added to 
suit the eye ; faces of figures do with white and a little sienna 
mixed together ; white drapery coat over with white, scarlet with 
scarlet, and yellow with chrome yellow ; all other parts of figures 
with white, except the parts you have already gilded. This will 
suffice for the fir.st painting. The second shade upon the moun- 
tains is made with a neutral composed of the three primitive colors, 
viz., crimson lake, yellow lake, and Prussian blue. The tone that 
you desire must predominate in making all your neutrals ; for 
instance, if you want a bluish neutral, the blue must predominate ; 
if you want a greenish, the j-ellow lake must predominate ; and 
if reddish neutral, let the crimson lake predominate. Having 
selected your shade, be sure to have it about the right strength 
before beginning, as it is difficult to avoid a patched appearance on 
the moimtains with varnish color, especially on the second and 
third coating, unless you are quick in your movements. If the 
water requires more color, paint it in the darker places, then 
repeat the shades on the foliage where it is requisite. Yoiir figures 
now claim some attention. Any part you want crimson, paint 
over gold with crimson lake, and you have a splendid color ; 
repeat it w^hen a little dry, if you Avish it darker, and for the 
shades add a little blue with your crimson lake. Blue dresses 
paint with a pale shade of Prussian blue on white or pale gold ; 
for the shades, paint in with a little stronger Prussian blue. 
(^Please bear in mind, when you wish a pale shade of any of these 



PAPIER MACHE. 201 

colors, especially mountains, to add varnish ; and when you want 
to thin it, use turpentine. We call attention to this, because it is 
rather difficult to manage varnish colors at first, owing to their 
drj4ng up so rapidly ; but by a little practice you soon find out that 
if worked with proper consistency the process is not difficult.) 
Green dress, with yellow lake and Prussian blue on pale gold or 
white; purple dresses, with crimson lake and a little Prussian 
blue on white or pale gold. Any part of the figure you do with 
scarlet, shade it with crimson lake ; yellows shade with burnt 
sienna, pale shade. Faces : paint the features in with Vandyke 
brown, and difi"erent tints with yellow lake, crimson lake, and 
sienna, paled down, and repeated to suit the eye. Parts of the 
mountains may require a third and fourth wash ; if so, attend to 
them with the neutrals named above. Sometimes we highten the 
effect of the near foliage by touching the edges with a little opaque 
color made of chrome yellow, white, and a little blue. It must be 
done very carefully, as opaque colors are powerful, compared 
with transparent ones. K what you do shows too abruptly, you 
have a remedy by putting on a little more of the transparent color. 
Parts of the figures may be hightened by a touch here and there 
of opaque color, and the faces are almost sure to want a little 
retouching with opaque. When your painting is all finished, a 
full week should intervene before varnishing ; and great care must 
be observed not to touch the bronze, as the hand or fingers inva- 
riably leave a stain, bronze being so delicate. 

Varnishing. — In varnishing papier mache paintings, care must 
be taken to have a clean brush, and yo\ir painting must be wiped 
with a silk handkerchief to free it from dust. Lay the painting 
flat, and with a one-inch flat camel's hair brush coat over with 
copal varnish as evenly as possible, being careful to cover every 
part ; leave it flat down, as it is, for a couple of hours or more, 



202 PAPIER MACHE. 

before removing, or the varnish is liable to run in streaks. Once 
varnishing is quite sufficient to preserve the painting ; but if you 
■wish to polish it, another coat of varnish must be given, allowing a 
■week between ; then after another week, it should be rubbed ■with 
pumice sand and water, in the following njanner : — 

How TO POLISH. — Get a piece of woolen, put it over some 
cotton, to make a rubber of it ; wet the rubber with water pretty- 
thoroughly, dip it into some fine pumice sand, and rub it back- 
wards and forwards on your varnished picture carefully with a 
moderate pressure. After you have rubbed a short time, wipe 
the sand from a part of it, to see the progress. If not sufficiently 
smooth, rub a little more, care being taken not to rub through the 
varnish, or you will rub the paint. When it is pretty smooth, 
wash all the sand off, wipe it perfectly dry, and give it another 
coat of varnish, allowing the same time for it to dry; then rub 
again as before with water and pumice sand. "SMien smooth 
enough, wash off aU the sand, and proceed to polish with very 
finely powdered rottenstone, and a rubber made of soft satin or 
silk. Saturate this with water, and rub with the rottenstone for 
a little time, until it shines ; then wash it all off. You can make it 
shine more by rubbing it with your hand, using a few touches of 
sweet oil and a little more rottenstone. 

How TO PREPA.E,E "SVooD. — \Mien wood is used for painting 
any of the papier mache styles, it is better to choose the closest 
grain, and proceed to coat it over several times with paint (either 
oil paint or varnish paint), rubbing do-wn with pumice sand and 
water after the third coat. The number of coats taken to prepare 
varies according to the texture of the wood, as it is necessary to 
coat it over until it is perfectly smooth and level. . Proper time 
should be allowed between each coat of paint, so that it may 
dry hard. 



PAPIER MACHE. 203 

Enamel painting looks very well painted on a bronze ground, 
and suits admirably for tables, chairs, and other furniture. 

Glass vases have a rich effect bronzed all over or partially ; 
perhaps an oval or a round, front and back ; and if you wish to 
paint upon it, proceed exactly in the same way as directed for 
enamel painting or bronze paintrng. 

Chinese Raising. — Trace the design in the same way as in the 
directions for tracing designs for enamel painting. The raising 
composition is made of two parts of white lead, one part of 
litharge, and one part of umber, and mLxed Avith gold size and a 
Httle varnish, into a paste, and thinned with turpentine. Put on 
your raising, when mixed, with a small brush, bemg careful to 
float it on evenly. AVhen you have raised all the parts you wish 
in your design, let it remain flat till the next day. Repeat the same 
until you get the parts raised as high as you wish. When all the 
raising is done, three or four days should be allowed for it to dry 
and harden, (a moderate heat of the fire Avill facilitate the drying ;) 
coat over the raised parts with gold size, and proceed with the 
gilding according to the directions for gilding. Two sorts of leaf 
gold are generally introduced — pale and dark — so the picture 
will require two separate sizings ; next, size with clear gold size 
all the ground and mountains, (supposing your subject to be a 
regular Chinese design,) and when dry enough, shade on some 
powdered bronze with a dry brush. Fine leaves and small trees 
can be introduced with opaque green made with chrome yellow 
and Prussian blue, and little flowers painted in with white and 
stained with red, blue, or yellow. The gold can be etched with 
black and shaded a little with neutral black. The bronze ground 
stain with transparent green and a little sienna ; afterward intro- 
duce a few gold spangles, (put them on with varnish ;) this makes 
the ground look sparkling, and adds greatly to the finish of it. 



204 PAPIER MACHE. 

"When quite finished, let it dry a week before vamishing : there 
is no occasion to varnish all over your picture, but only the part 
that is painted. 

Pearling. — Prepare the design, marking all the parts you wish 
to have pearl. Trace the desigii upon the article, — we will sup- 
pose it to be a small table, — same as tracing for enamel, before 
explained. Remove your drawing, and place on all your pearl. 
See how it looks. K satisfactory, get some spirit varnish and a 
small camel's hair brush. Remove one piece of pearl at a time, put 
some of the varnish in the place with the small brush, and fit on the 
pearl, pressing it down so as to lie flat. Go through with all the 
pearl in the same way ; some of the large pieces may want a weight 
put on to keep them flat. Next day give it a coat all over with 
black varnish made with the spirit varnish and lampblack. Repeat 
the coat (a flat camel's hair brush is best for varnishing) twice a 
day for the first three or four days. When the pearl seems pretty 
nearly even with the black, scrape all the black off the pearl by 
means of a chisel or knife, being careful not to remove any of the 
black any where else by letting the knifo or chisel slip. When 
all is scraped off", you can commence coating it over again. This 
time add a little Prussian blue with your black varnish : it makes a 
more brilliant black. (The proportions arc, to one pint of spirit 
varnish add one and a half ounces of lampblack and half an ounce 
of Prussian blue.) Coat it three or four times over if it requires 
it ; then scrape ofl" the black from the pearl again. If it seems 
pretty level, we will proceed with the next process ; (if not, coat 
again as before, and scrape.) Get some stout broadcloth, and make 
a good substantial rubber by stuffing in some soft cotton ; tie it 
round, so that you can handle it conveniently ; put some turpentine 
in a saucer with some pumice sand, and charge your rubber well 
with this, and rub away till you get a smooth surface all over. 



PAPIER MACHE. 205 

"When smooth enough, wash the sand all off with turpentine ; then 
rub it with rottenstone and Avater, using this time a rubber made 
of silk or satin ; this rids it of all sticky property that remains from 
the turpentine rubbing. You have now got through the troublesome 
part of it ; getting rid of every thing in the shape of black varnish 
specs, you are ready for the next step. If you wish to have 
some leaf gold introduced, make your selection of what you will 
have, and prepare a little gold size by mixing in a little chrome yel- 
low, so as to enable you to see better what you are about. Coat 
over the leaves or stems, or both, with the gold size, and proceed 
with the gilding according to the directions for gilding. If any 
more flowers are in your group than what are pearl, it is requisite 
to coat them over with white, proceeding exactly in the same way as 
in the directions laid down under the head of Enamel Painting. The 
pearl flowers you shade with their respective colors, so as not to 
cover up too much pearl. For instance, if you want to shade a 
rose, do it with crimson lake on the shade side of the flower, leav- 
ing the pure pearl to answer for the lights. "VMien your painting is 
all finished, you allow sufficient time for it to dry, and proceed with 
the varnishing precisely as in enamel work and bronzing. 

GiLDixG ox Satin, Paper, Cloth, Light-colored, Uxpre- 
PARED "SVooDs, ETC. — Sometimes gilding is required upon only 
small parts of articles. In such cases use strong isinglass solution, 
made according to the directions "WTitten before — the purer the 
better. Take a small camel's hair brush, and coat over with the 
isinglass size, while it is warm, the places you \vish to gild. When 
dni', proceed with your gold size, same as the gold size gilding. 
The reason of apphing the isinglass size is to satisfy the porous 
nature of the fabric, and make a delicate kind of crust as a fotmda- 
tion for the gold size. If you wish to paint flags and banners with 
oil paint, you must coat over the parts first with isinglass size. 
18 



206 



PAPIER MACHE. 



Gilding. 




NY part you wish to have leaf 
gold it is requisite to cover 
evenly with gold size, (a little 
chrome yellow or white lead 
may be mixed in with the gold 
size merely to enable you to see 
the process,) and alloAv it to 
dry until it feels a little sticky; 
it can remain much longer than 

for bronzing, as leaf gold does 

not require so strong a sticky property as bronze. "Wlien suffi- 
ciently dry, put on the gold by means of the tip, as described in 
glass gilding ; or, if you are expert enough, put it on with your 
fingers from the gold book. Be careful to cover every part of 
the gold size with smooth leaf gold, and when all covered, press 
gently with a piece of soft chamois leather on all the gilded parts, 
and remove the superfluous gold. If these directions are strictly 
followed, you can not fail to have good smooth gilding ; but if the 
gold size is put on thick and uneven, and the leaf gold put on too 
soon, the gold Avill look rough and dark, and be very unsatisfactory 
to the eye when you get more experienced. 






(207) 



.vy/-'' 




^ HIS work, when well and tastefully done, 
closely resembles rich carving in wood, 
and can be used for a great variety of 
useful and ornamental purposes. 

We have adopted the following method with suc- 
cess : — 

Select a soft sheep skin rather thick ; cut from it flowers and 

leaves to suit your fancy. It is well to have pasteboard patterns 

free from blemishes and neatly cut, and with these it will be easy to 

cut^om the leather. Due attention should be given to different 

18* (209) 



210 LEATHER WORK. 

sizes and kinds. When you have a sufficient number cut from the 
leather, wet them in cold water, and squeeze them drj-, and pull 
them into shape, and form the leaves and flowers to suit your taste ; 
while wet, put them into the oven to dry. Make a solution of 
\-inegar and Venetian red, and dip them into it. When perfectly 
dry, dip them in thin black varnish ; if the varnish be too thick, 
dilute it with spirits of turpentine. When dry, they will have the 
color of rosewood. 

Take gum shellac, and the night before you wish to use it, pour 
on sufficient alcohol to dissolve it. Dip the flowers and leaves into 
this solution, taking care not to have it too thick. If not stifl" 
enough, dip them a second time. Put them on a board to dry in 
the siin, as the drying by a /re will have a tendency to make them 
sticky. 

Paint your fiame, or whatever is to be covered, with Venetian 
red and vinegar, and when dry, rub it smooth. Varnish with thin 
black varnish, and when dry, nail on the leaves and flowers with 
small tacks, and paint with a solution of shellac dissolved in al- 
cohol ; finally, varnish with the best copal varnish. 

Again, for general purposes, basil leather is good. Select that of 
an even texture and light color. 

The skiver leather is used for grapes, small leaves, and delicate 
work. (The artist will find that the sheep skin, easily to be had, 
will answer all purposes, by using discretion in selecting the thick, 
soft, or thin portions, as the work may require.) Place a piece 
of the basil leather in water for a moment ; press it in a linen 
cloth until the surface dries. While damp, cut out your leaf with 
scissors or a leather-cutting knife. Pasteboard patterns can easily 
be made from natural leaves. By lapng these patterns upon the 
leather, the leaves can be readily cut. M 

Veia with a pointed instrument, by marking on the smooth side 



LEATHER WORK. 



211 



of the leather ; then bend and mold your leaves as you msh 
them to appear when the work is completed. Dry them quickly to 
harden them. 

A\lien thoroughly dry, brush all over with prepared stiffening, 
which is sold in convenient sized bottles. After this process, brush 
the leaves all over with black varnish ; two thin coats are sufficient. 

For stems, take strips of basil leather, wet and roll with the hand 
upon the table, or over a wire. 

For tendrils, wmd the leather, while wet, around a small round 
stick or tool, fastening the ends ; dry quickly by the fire ; remove 
from the stick, and apply a coat of stiffening ; the finish is the same 
as for leaves. 

Grapes are very handsome in this work. They are made by tying 
bits of cotton or wadding, peas, marbles, etc., into the leather with 
strong thread, then putting a piece of wire through the part which 
has been tied up for the stalk. Stain and make into clusters, taking 
care to conceal the part tied. All fr-uits and flowers are stained, 
etc., precisely in the same manner as leaves. 

The Frame. — Have a frame made of well-seasoned wood, with 
the outer edge thinner than the inner, though this is a matter of 
taste. Size it all over. Let it dry 
for an hour or so. Then apply a 
coating of oak varnish stain ; when 
dry, it will be ready for use. Com- 
mence by attaching the stem with 
small tacks. Suppose you have a 
vine ; cover the wood with the foli- 
age as naturally as possible. Fasten 
with strong glue, where necessary. 
^ narrow gold beading gives a fin- 
ished appearance to a frame. 




212 LEATHER WORK. 

It is impossible in our limited space to particularize the various 
articles for which leather work is adapted ; but every ir^di^'idual of 
fertile imagination and ingenuity will readily perceive the uses to 
which this art can be applied. We give a pretty design for a 
watchstand. 





In making flowers, cut in one piece wherever you can ; the 
white lily, for instance, where the petals may be squeezed up and 




glued to keep them in place. It is always preferable to have 
a natural flower to look at. A little ingenmty will enable the 



LEATHER WORK. 



213 




5. 



8, 



learner to cut the leather to ad- 
vantage, and the fewer the pieces 
used, the simpler the work will 
be. 

The bud of the white lily is 
made by folding the whole corolla 
close together. 

A convolvulus may be made by 
folding and stretching the leather, 
while wet, over the tool used to 
make the wax convolvulus. It 
is very pretty, and not difficult to 
make. 

Roses, camellias, etc., can all be 
made handsomely by a little care 
and ingenuity. 

Do not forget our favorite the 
hop vitie. To make it, wind a 
piece of leather around the end 
of a Avire ; fasten well. !Mold 
the requisite number of petals in 
a convex form, and glue separately 
around this center. 

TJie Fuschia. — The calyx forms the external part of this flower, 
and is made ^^'ith one piece of leather cut as in the figure. The 
petals within this are four, and are cut out, the four in one piece, 
in the form of the dotted line. They must be molded into shape, 
and glued to the stamina inside the calyx, so as to alternate with 
its petals. This flower has nine stamina, and they are cut in one 
piece of leather. To put the fuschia together : Cut the nine 
stamina, and attach to them the wire, to form the stalk; then 




214 



LEATHER WORK. 



roll the four petals firmly over the stamina ; they must be molded 
and <^lued round the stamina and stalk, then take the calyx and 
roll round the whole ; the leaves must be ex- 
panded and molded as in the diagram, taking 
care that the stamina are left out, as in the nat- 
ural flower, and that the inner petals alternate 
>nth the leaves of the calyx ; to make the buds, 
roll up the calyx, and turn the ends in, not in- 
serting any stamina. 

The Passion Floicer is composed, in leather, 
of five pieces. Then cut out the corolla of 
five petals with the rounded ends; cut al-;o 
a circular piece for the nectary, which must 
be cut all round with the knife to form 
the radii, the center having many small cuts 
radiating from the central point ; when turned 
upward, in putting it in its place, it forms the 
fringe-like appearance around the pistil seen in the flowers. 






The passion flower has five stamina, with ladle-shaped ends, or 
anthers, and three stigmas a little elevated above, and turning over 



LEATHER WORK. 



215 



the stamina ; the anthers and stigmas are made of one piece 
of leather. The involucrum is formed also of one piece, and 
the three leaves are laid one over the other, as in the annexed 
flower. 

To put together the various 
parts above described and form 
the passion flower, begin by- 
doubling a piece of wire over 
the angles of the stamma, 
twisting it underneath ; roll a 
piece of skiver leather round 
the wire to form the style of 
the pistil and the stem of the 
whole flower ; then turn up the 
three stigmas and roll a i^raall 
piece of leather round them 
close to the stamina, and turn 
them over ; this being done, 
place the nectary on the stem, taking care that the cut portion 
:n the center be arranged upward around the pistil. The petals 
are next placed on the stem, followed by the calyx ; the leaves 
of the calyx must alternate with the petals ; liquid glue must 
be inserted between each portion of the flower to give it flrm- 
ness. 

The involucrum, which is a sort of calyx, is put on the stem 
last, a little way below the true calyx ; we may just add, that 
all the leaves, petals, etc., with the exception of the involucrum, 
must have the smooth side of the leather uppermost ; the petals 
and calyx must be hollowed out with the modelling tool for that 
purpose, or if that is not at hand, use the handle of the veining 
^ol, and laying the petals and also the calyx on a smooth surface, 




216 



LEATHER WORK. 




LEATHER WORK. 217 

rub them with the ivory end of the veining tool till they become 
hollow and smooth, as in the natural flower. 

The above is the way, as plainly as we can possibly describe it, 

to make a passion flower. We have repeatedly made the flower 

exactly upon the above plan, and it has always been much admired. 

Camellias vary in the form of leaves, and the petals vary in 

number. To make a camellia, cut out two pieces, as in the annexed 

diagram, containing four petals 
in each ; then cut out one or two 
larger pieces, witli six petals in 
each, and one or more still larger, 
with seven or eight petals ; then, 
ha-ving a natiural camellia at hand, 
moidd them all into form, fasten 
all the pieces of leather together, 
the smallest at the top, and the 
largest at the bottom, so that the petals alternate, with liquid glue, 
and put a piece of wire through the whole for the stalk ; cover it 
with skiver bather. 

To make the Jessamine, copy the corolla from the annexed 
design, by cutting a star-like piece of basil, into which insert the 
wire for the stalk as closely as possible. As the 
stamina are not visible in this flower, it is need- 
less to make them. The tube upon which the 
corolla rests can be made by rolling a piece of 
leather round the wire thickest at the flower, 
and then add another piece of leather about an 
inch below the corolla, which must have five fine- 
pointed leaves for the calyx. 

The Daifiy is formed by making two pieces of 
leather like the pattern, one larger than the other, and putting 
19 






218 LEATHER WORK. 

the -wire, for stalk, through both of them. The lit- 
tle golden center of the daisy can be well imitated 
by placing a round piece of leather, rather thick, m 
the center, shaved off at the edges, and marked with 
the veining tool full of dots. 

A Wild Rose is made by cutting out two pieces 
of leather, exactly as in the engraving, putting the 
wire through two holes made in the center of the 
pieces with a fine brad-awl, and pass a piece of wire 
through the holes, leaving both ends of the wire at 
the back to be twisted for the stalk. To form the stamina, cut fine 

^ — Y strips of leather as long again as 

f. j /"""X the stamina are required to be, and 

. ' \ !; ' \ insert them under the eye of the 

r .. ' \ wire which forms the stalk ; then 

I '.;= • t:-— ^ cut the stamina, and pinch them 

V£____^ ^v up into form. The top piece, 

•/^ ..-' K J containing five petals, niu-^^t be 

\^^ / \ /^.^ molded and curved upward, in- 

^ — ^ losing the stamina ; the bottom 

piece also, containing five petals, must be molded downward, 

curving and bending them into form. 

To make a larger rose, cut out a smaller piece than is sho-wTi in 
the engraving, of the same form, also the two in the engraving, 
and a larger piece of the same form, making four pieces, containing 
twenty petals ; then proceed as before mentioned, and a fuller rose 
is produced ; thus the character of the flower and the number of 
petals can be regulated with comparative ease. 

The rose leaves can be molded at the back by pressing them 
into the grape mold with one of the pressing tools. 

Oak and Ivy Bracket. — The bracket annexed is of an unu- 



LEATHER WORK. 



219 



sually pretty pattern, and we give two diagrams. The vine and 
the convolvulus pattern are much used, with very beautiful effect. 
We intended this design to exhibit old oak. It should be stained 
very dark, the oak stems being very thick, while the stems of 
ivy can be formed of tendrils. To make the oak stem, get very 




thick vrxre, and have it cut to the desired lengths ; then cover the 
wires with leather, and bend them to resemble gnarled oak ; 
attach, as naturally as possible, oak leaves and acorns at the 
back of the wires, and on the wood Avork, as sho\\Ti in the 
skeleton bracket in a former part of this work ; then attach the 
ivy tendrils, leaves, and berries around the oak stems, and the 
bracket is completed. 




220 



LEATHER WORK. 



It improves the appearance of any piece of ornamental work, 
to give the whole when completed a slight coat of varnish. 

Card Racks can be made in a variety of ways. The design 
here exhibited is novel, and at the same time very useful. The 
back is made either with wood or calf-skin 
leather ; and the leaves forming the rack 
are also made of the same material. Calf- 
skin dries very hard, being treated exactly 
the same as the basil leather m the manner 
of working. 

The Round Open-tcork Frame. — The 
beautiful design on the opposite page is 
made wi h a round frame of any width 
desired, having two rebates, one inside and 
one outside the frame — the inside rebate 
being to admit the picture, and the outside 
one to allow of the nailing firmly to the 
frame the open-work, which is to be made 
in the following manner : Take a flat board, 
— an ironing board will do, — lay the frame upon it, and with a 
black lead pencd or a pioce of chalk, mark the size all round, 
making allowance for the rebate ; then having ready the stems, 
work them in and out, so as to form the open-work as in the 
drawing ; when finished, nail it to the frame, and work stems and 
tendrils of the vine, hop, passion flower, or any other beautiful 
creeping plant, attachmg the fruit or flowers in an artistic manner, 
and the result will be one of the most elegant frames ever beheld. 

The open or trellis- work of this frame should have stout wire 
inclosed in the basil leather, and in order that it may not appear 
formal, wind pieces of leather round the naked wire at irregular 
intervals, to resemble knots, etc. ; then cover the whole with basH 




LEATHER WORK. 



221 



leather. The stem and tendrils, which are to wind in and out, and 
are a portion of the plant, are not to have wire in them. 

Fire Screens are generally filled with Berlin wool, or some 
other fancy needlework. Those who would prefer to have an entire 




piece of leather w ork, can paint landscapes or flowers upon white 
leather, using the same medium as is used in body color painting, 
mixed with finely-powdered colors. 
19* 



999 



LEATHER WORK. 




A little ingenuity will enable any one to make very pretty 
and useful Baskets. One like the 
follo-vving, ornamented with rose 
sprays outside, can be lined inside 
with velvet, and little pockets being 
made in the velvet lining, they be- 
come a very useful article. The 
outside is stained in imitation of oak. 

The Rumunrj Border here given can be adapted 
to ornamenting cornices, poles, frames, etc. It is 
very easy of imitation, and will well repay the 
artist. 

We close this article with a beautiful design for 
a Table. It is made in four pieces, so that one 
part can be done at a time, and when completed, 
can be removed until the whole is completed, 
when it can be put firmly together, and forms a 
solid example of the use and beauty of the orna- 
mental leather work. 

In making Acorns, procure some natural acorn cups, 
such cups only as are perfectly sound, — then pierce two holes 
through the bottom of the cup, pass a piece of tine wire through 
the holes, leaving the two ends long enough to be twisted into a 
stalk. If the stalk is to be exposed, it must be covered and made 
fast with liquid glue. The most correctly formed acorn tops are 
those turned in wood, which can be firmly placed in the cup by 
the aid of the liquid glue. This completes the fully-formed acorn. 
A slight variation of this method is suit&ble for cherries and grapes. 
TJie Size for Stiffe)iing. — Simmer fovir ounces of strips of parch- 
ment in eight ounces of water till it is reduced one half ; skim off 
any impurities that may arise to the surface, then strain through a 




choose 



LEATHER WORK. 



223 



fine sieve, or cloth, into a basin ; leave it till cold, when it will be 
firm and clear. When required for use, cut off as much as you 
want, and warm it. Use while warm. 




A thin glue size of a light color will answer when the above 
materials are not handy. 

In this, as in all other kinds of fancy work, every thing depends 
upon the neatness of the work. You must not only arrange taste- 



224 LEATHER WORK. 

fully, but you must secure every leaf, tendril, and flower firmly ; 
and, above all things, do not crowd together such a mass of work 
as to displease the eye and offend good taste. 

A very pretty effect is produced by gilding and bronzing the 
leather. Go over the surface of your leaf or petal with a camel's 
hair pencil dipped in gold size, and when ^o dry that it will stick to 
the finger lay on your gold leaf or gold bronze as in directions 
for bronze painting, on another page. 

In painting leather work, use finely-powdered colors, mixing 
them to the consistency of cream, by using the white of an egg with 
two ounces of distilled vinegar. Keep this in a bottle, and shake 
it well whenever you wiish to mbc colors with it. Colors can be 
also mixed Avith warm parchment size, or with a weak solution of 
gum arabic. In all of these methods apply a coat of quick drying 
pale varnish. Oil colors are not suitec* to this kind of material. 



Caiiiermir. 



(22S) 




■AKE out the entrails ; remove the skin 
with the greatest possible care ; rub 
over the whole interior with arsenic, 
(a deadly poison ;) put wires from the head to the legs 
to preserve the natural form, and stuff immediately with 
tow, wool, or the like. If allowed to dry after apply- 
ing the arsenic, the skin becomes too stiff to handle. 
Another, and, as we think, a better way for very small 

(227) 



228 TAXIDERMY. 

birds, is, " after taking out the entrails, to open a pas- 
sage to the brain, which must be scooped out through 
the mouth; introduce into the cavities of the skull and 
the whole body a mixture of salt, pepper, and alum, put- 
ting some through the gullet and whole length of the 
neck ; then hang the bird in a cool, airy place — first 
by the feet, that the body may be impregnated by the 
salt, and afterward by a thread through the under man- 
dible of the bill, till it appears to be sweet ; then hang 
in the sun, or near a fire. After it is well dry, clear 
out what remains of the mixture, and fill up the cavity 
of the body with wool, oakum, or any soft substance." 



ANGLO-JAPANESE WORK. 229 



ANGLO-JAPANESE WORK. 

" This is an elegant and easy domestic art. Take 
yellow withered leaves, dissolve gum, get mixed black 
paint and some copal varnish, etc. Any articles may be 
ornamented with these simple materials — an old work- 
box, tea-caddy, fire screen, flower pots, etc. Select per- 
fect leaves, dry and press them between the leaves of 
books, rub the surface of the article to be ornamented 
with fine sand paper, then give it a coat of fine black 
paint, which should be procured mixed at a color shop. 
When dry, rub smooth with pumice stone ; then apply 
two other coats. Dry ; arrange leaves in any manner 
and variety, according to taste. Gum the leaves on the 
under side, and press them upon their places. Then 
dissolve some isinglass in hot water, and brush it over 
the work while the solution is warm ; when dry, give 
three coats of copal varnish, allowing ample time for 
each coat to dry. Articles thus ornamented last for 
years, and are very pleasing." 
20 



230 TRANSFER ON WOOD. 

TRANSFER ON WOOD. 

Dissolve salt in soft water ; float your engraving on 
the surface, picture side up ; let it remain about one 
hour. Your screen, box, or table should be of bird's- 
eye maple, or other light-colored hard wood ; varnish 
with best copal or transfer varnish. 

Take the picture from the water, dry a little between 
linen rags ; then put the engraving, picture side down, 
on the varnished wood, and smooth it nicely. If the 
picture entirely covers the wood after the margin is cut 
off, so that no varnish be exposed, lay over it a thin 
board and heavy weight ; leave it thus in press over 
night. If you wish but a small picture in the center 
of your wood, apply the varnish only to a space the 
size of your picture. Dip your fore finger i.i salt and 
water, and commence rubbing off the paper ; the nearer 
you come to the engraving, the more careful you must 
be, as a hole would spoil your work. Rub slowly and 
patiently, till you have taken off every bit of the paper, 
and left only the black lines and touches of your picture 
on the wood, in an inverted direction. Finish up with 
two or three coats of copal varnish. 



Mu SlorL 



(231) 




'.^HE tools requisite in this delightful branch 
of ornamental work, are as follows, and 
as the learner advances 'n knowledge and experience, 
he will easily originate other forms and models from 
which to make particular designs : — 

A " dipper," or " plunger," (for sheeting the wax,) 
made of lignumvitse, or some very close-grained, hard 
wood, as smooth as glass, from four to six inches in 
20* (233> 



234 



WAX WORK. 



diameter across the face, (which should be slightly 
convex.) 

Molding sticks of this form, and of two or more 
sizes. 





One of this, for convol- 
vulus. 

One of this, for lily of 
the valley, and centers of 
flowers. 

One of this, for the lilac 
and cups of jonquil. 

If you wish to make other varieties of bell flowers, 
get the sticks turned by some skillful workman, from 
natural flowers ; they should be very hard, and as smooth 
as possible. 

The brushes used in painting the smooth surface of 
flowers are the round, stifi*, bristle brushes, called scrubs^ 
or theorem brushes. For fine lines, spots, etc., take fine 
camel's hair pencils. 

Wire of three different sizes, annealed. 



WAX WORK. 



235 



To PREPARE "Wax por Flowers. — Take the very best quality 
of white wax, and melt it slowly in an earthen vessel or porcelain 
porringer ; when melted, stir into it one table- spoonful of fir balsam 
to every cup of melted wax. 

Have at hand a basin of warm soap suds, fine towels or rags, and 
your dipper. 

"WTien the wax is melted, wet your dipper in the suds, rub soap 
all over it, rinse it in the basin, shake off" the water, dip with a 
quick motion into the hot wax, so as barely to skim the surface, 
bending the dipper over, so as to exclude the air ; raise your dipper 
from the wax, and plunge it into the basin of suds. A sheet of 
thin, semi-transparent, flexible wax will be found therein of the 
right consistency for roses, azalias, and all flowers of similar tex- 
ture. Continue dipping off sheets until you wish to change the 
quality of the wax ; be careful that the wax be neither bubbling hot 
nor cool. 

Japonicas, orange blossoms, and all thick, opaque petals require a 
difl'erent white. To make this, we put into the wax, when hot, a 
small bag of flake or German white ; never more than one third of 
a tea-spoonful, and dip as before, only regulating the thickness of 
the wax by heat. VThen you have dipped off as many sheets as you 
require, pour the rest into a well-soaped cup to form a lump for 
pinks. 

Next to the white, prepare yellow wax in the same way as the 
white, only using yellow-powdered chrome. After you have 
made the yellow, put together all the bits and edges of wax which 
vou have pulled from the sheets, add green powdered paint, and 
dip off various shades of green, from very light to very dark. Other 
colors, as red and blue, may be prepared in the same way ; but we 
prefer painting the white and yellow wax to obtain more brilliancy 
of tone. 



236 WAX WORK. 

The melted wax, as for japonicas, is used for bell-flowers. Soap 
the stick very thoroughly, wash off the particles of soap, plunge 
your stick into the hot wax, then into the suds. In taking the 
stick from the wax, let the wax drip from the end rather than the 
sidco We think it best to plunge the stick quickly and raise it 
perpendicularly ; in this way, if there be a little extra thickness, it 
will come in the right place. 

The utmost care must be taken with the lily of the valley ; be 
not discouraged if you dip two or three times before getting a per- 
fect bell. The wax must be hot, Avithout simmer or bubble. 

Green leaves made by dipping the natural leaf into the hot 
green wax, then putting the two wax sides together, with a wire be- 
tween, are more natural than when cut and veined ; but they tax 
the patience, and require more time. 

Another Method of jJreparing Wax. — Melt the wax in a vessel 
of hot water ; the wax will rise to the top. Put in fir balsam, 
sweet oil, and spirits of turpentine, in the proportion of 1, 2, 3, — 
that is, one part turpentine, two oil, and three balsam, — six tea- 
spoonfuls to a pint of wax in warm weather, and one third more in 
cold weathero Immerse a junk bottle into the wax ; it will form 
around it. Cut down the wax on the bottle, and you Avill thus 
have a strip instead of a round sheet of Avax. 

We prefer the former to the latter method of preparing the wax, 
though we use both. 

To make Patterns for Flotvers- — Dissect natural flowers, and 
cut paper patterns from their petals, writing on them the num- 
ber of each size and the number of sizes, likewise the color desired. 

Flower Making. — Where a flower requires fine work 
or minute penciling, the sable brushes are to be used for 



WAX WORK. 



237 



this purpose, and they will be found essentially neces- 
sary in the imitation of geraniums, carnations, heart's- 
ease, or flowers of similar character. 

Before you commence cutting, take care to render your 
scissors loose in the rivet. Dip them constantly in the 
cup of water at your side, to prevent their adhesion to 
the wax ; should they, in spite of this, become clogged, 
place them in your mouth for a few seconds, and the heat 
will clear the edges so that you can wipe them easily. 
You will perceive that the wax has a dull side and a 
glossy one — a right and a wrong. 

It is better to lay the paper pattern upon the dull side, 
so that, in cutting out, you secure a sharp and clear edge. 
Be cautious that you place the pattern in such a position 
as to cut with the grain of the wax. Be sure to cut 
the same number of petals as you found in the natural 
flower, or the harmony of proportion desirable in your 
flower will be lost. 

Spread half a sheet of tissue paper over the table upon 
which you intend to work, so as to prevent the slightest 
dust or impurity of any kind from injuring your wax, to 
which every particle of dust will adhere. 

As we have remarked in speaking of painting the 



238 WAX WORK. 

fruit, the stiff brushes are held perfectly upright, and the 
color applied rapidly. 

Damask roses, fuschias, camellias, etc., may be painted 
with crimson powder mixed with water on the palette. 
(See list of colors.) 

A bright scarlet for poppies, scarlet dahlies, etc., is 
obtained by painting the same crimson on yellow wax. 

The same on a light lemon-colored wax gives another 
beautiful shade. Various shades of rose tints can be 
gained by carmine more or less deep. Sometimes we 
paint with dry powder. If the wax be slightly warm, the 
powder will adhere, and a soft, velvety surface be pro- 
duced, such as can not be made by the use of the water 
color alone. In making a bouquet, you need the various 
colors and surfaces, if you will be true to nature. Bo 
very careful to avoid painting that portion of each petal 
which is to be joined to the foundation of the flower, as 
any moisture or color prevents a secure adhesion. 

To make a Pink Rose. — Lay the cut paper pattern on the 
wrong side of the wax, cut with the small, sharp scissors, fre- 
quently dipping them in warm water, or putting them in your 
mouth. Faint very lightly with carmine, leavmg the lower part of 
the petal white. Lay a petal on the palm of your hand, right side 
down ; press the head of the wooden pin, first on the right, then on 



WAX WORK. 239 

the left side, endeavoring not to press the middle. This will give a 
graceful curl to the petal, as you will observe by the natural one. 
Half-blown roses and buds need to be curled more than full- 
blown ones. 

Your petals painted and arranged in order, proceed to make the 
stamens. This is done by binding a strip of yellow wax, one eighth 
of an inch in width, on a strip of white wax, nearly one inch in 
width, and cutting through the yellow half way down into the 
white, so as to make a fringe. The finer you cut it, the better ; or 
you can cut the unbound white wax ; then dip the cut ends into a 
solution of gum arable, and afterward into powdered yellow ; this 
will give a pollen. 

The calyx is cut from a suitable shade of green, and from a pat- 
tern taken from the calyx of a natural rose. 

For the leaves take two shades of green — one for the upper, the 
other for the under side of the leaf; put them together, and cut 
your green leaf through the double wax ; insert a wire between the 
two parts of the leaf to form the fibre and pedicle of the same ; 
then press the two sides firmly together, and serrate the edges with 
your sharp scissors. 

The leaf has a neater finish if the wire be covered with wax before 
inserting. Take a very narrow strip of wax, lay it perpendicularly 
against the wire ; then twist the Avire round and round between the 
thumb and finger, until it is entirely covered with a smooth surface 
of green. 

Observe how s^Tnmetrically Nature has arranged her rose leaves, 
and try to imitate — one large one for the top of the stalk, two a 
little smaller placed just below, and a third pair still farther down. 

Fine wii-e doubled is better than coarse, stiff wire. Take of such 
a piece the desired length ; turn the end over two or three times, to 
prevent the flower slipping off while you are putting it together. 



240 WAX WORK. 

Cover the end thus bent with green wax, pinching up a bit in the 
center for a pistil ; wind around this the strip of fringed wax, and 
compare with the natural flower. Now set around the petals, 
commencing with the smallest size ; press the lower part of each 
petal on the lump which is around the wire. Take the other sizes 
one after the other, pressing them in the same manner, and so on 
till all are used. "Work down the lower parts of the petals with 
the small end of the molding stick. 

Set the calyx around neatly, and cover the stalk. You will have 
a rose natural and beautiful in proportion to the neatness of your 
work and the accuracy with which you have imitated your pattern, 
a natural one. 

Persons often smell of our roses, then, with a look of astonish- 
ment, exclaim, " Why, what kind of a rose is it! " Nature alone 
can give the perfume. 

Caynellia. — After modeling a rose, any person can make a 
japonica by having one to look at. In case our reader has none, we 
give these directions. 

Cut sLx petals from each of the heart-shaped patterns from which 
you cut your rose, only a trifle longer. "^lake a ball of wax on the 
end of the wire, turned as before to prevent the flower slipping off", 
and bend over it eight or ten of the smallest petals ; then place three 
rows of the succeeding sizes of petals turned inward around the 
ball in the center, and the other rows turn outward. The calyx is 
of light green, roimd at the top ; the leaves are large, brilliant, 
dark-green color. 

Colored japonicas vary only in color. Crimson painted on yel- 
low gives a fine color, and carmine on white makes a beautiful 
japonica. 

Convolvulus. — Convolvuli are dipped on a stick made for that 
purpose from the natural flower. Paint the veins with a fine 



WAX WORK. 241 

brush. Put a bit of wax on the end of a fine wire, and cut to 
imitate stamens ; pierce the wire through the tube of the flower, 
twist with green wax, and finish off with tendrils and leaves. 
Tendrils are made by covering a small wire with wax, and twi.ting 
it around a molding stick, commencing at the point, and turning it 
round and round from the center of the stick to the point, to fo'rm 
a spiral cone. A few small green leaves make a pretty finish. 

Lily of the Valley. — - Consider the lilies, how they grow ; they 
toil not, they sphi not, and yet I say unto you, that Solomon 
in all his glory was not arrayed like one of these." Cut the edge 
of the little white bells into scallops, turn them back a little, put 
a bit of yellow wax on the end of a bent wire, dip it in gum arable, 
then in yellow powder for pollen ; draw the wire through the 
center of the flower, and twist for a stalk with very delicate light 
green. The leaves are too large and stifl" to be pretty in wax. 

Violets should be painted with a soft brush ; they require much 
time and care. 

Orange Bhssoms must be made from thick wax ; the stamens 
cut longer than for a rose. The beautiful white buds and various " 
green leaves can hardly be equaled by any other flower made in 
wax. They are pretty wedding presents for the hair. 

Dahlia. — Cut the petals from the natural flower; roll each 
petal with the head of the molding stick from the top to the hot- 
tom ; draw a perpendicular line with the point of the stick through 
the center of the leaf, and curved lines on each side, like the longi- 
tudinal lines on a globe ; turn the top of the three largest sizes 
back a little. 

As this flower is very broad at the base, pass your wire doubled 

twice through a large button mold, twist it firmly underneath, and 

cover it with yellow or very pale green wax ; roll up a small bit of 

yellow wax, and mold it to the center of the button ; press closely 

21 



242 WAX WORK. 

around this the lower end of a cut fringe of yellow wax dipped in 
gum arabic and powdered for pollen ; around these stamens mold 
the twenty-five or thirty small petals. Care must be taken to keep 
them pressed very closely together, and as the surface of the button 
becomes filled, wind around its edges strips of yellow wax ; con- 
tinue to set the petals around in the order of their sizes, keeping a 
broad surface. 

The calyces help to support the flower. Below the two rows 
of flat calyces, place five nipped at the ends and turned back- 
ward. 

This flower is rather difficult to put together, but amply repays 
the labor by its naturalness and beauty. 

Pinks. — The petals may be cut and pointed with sharp scissors, 
then painted with a soft brush, or with the dry powder, as hereto- 
fore du-ected, according to the color desired. 

Another and Better Method. — Paint all over the lump of wax 
which you have run in the cup for that purpose ; then scrape 
from it with a sharp penknife. K you hold the knife between the 
thumb and fore finger of the right hand, and begin to scrape at the 
center of the knife, leaving off* at the point, you will get a beauti- 
fully variegated pointsd petal, smooth on one side, and slightly • 
quilled on the other. We draw a bit of quill feather over the 
knife for the two stamens, and arrange the petals around in order, 
beginning Avith the smallest. Finish off" with a pointed calyx ; 
imitate the natural one. 

Hyacinths can be made single or double, of various shades and 
colors. Do not paint the lower part of the petals. Roll them 
from the top to the bottom, draw a line through the middle, press 
it on the imder side to make a strong indenture, put the lower part 
under the thiunb, and turn the top over the fore finger — easy to 
make. 



WAX WORK. 243 

We have now spoken of the various methods which 
we employ in making flowers, and will only add, that 
in our study to imitate natural flowers, we use what- 
ever suits our purpose best ; for some stamens, as those of 
the dahlia, we dry the center of a natural dahlia, and use 
it instead of the cut stamen. Sometimes we dip sewing 
cotton into hot wax, drawing it through the fingers ; 
this is good where the filaments are long. Again, ma- 
nilla grass is used, as it is stifl" as well as delicate. 

If we wish to represent a petal having one color on 
one side, and one on the other, as the white lily, which 
is green and white, we put a piece of thin white mus- 
lin between green and white wax, and cut the petal 
through the two ; this interlining gives a clear green 
on one side, and a clear white on the other ; the same 
may be done with other colors, as the bufi* and pink 
for honeysuckles. 

WHiite Passion Flmcers. — To form the three purple anthers to 
be seen on the top of the pistil, roll white -wax round fine -wires of 
about three quarters of an inch in length, till the proper size and 
length are obtained, remembering to make them thicker as you 
approach the top, which in itself is nearly globular. 

Color these anthers with the darkest shade of piirple, and twist 
the ends of the three wires together. 



244 WAX WORK, 

In order to form the pistil, place, one over the other, a sufficient 
quantity of light green, light yellow, and white wax, the latter be- 
ing intended for the outside ; roll these together round second sized 
wire into the desired shape, the top being thicker than the base, 
which terminates in a globe of lemon-colored wax, representing the 
ovary or seed cup. 

The three purple anthers are placed on the crown of the pistil, so 
that their tops are equidistant from each other, forming a triangle, 
the sides of which are about an inch in length. 

Five ladle-shaped stamens are next formed from the same union 
of wax as used in the pistil, properly cut by the pattern, curled and 
united to the stem of the pistil, having been previously colored 
round the edges with yellow. 

Cut a piece of white w»x into a fine fringe about half an inch 
deep and two inches long; color the fringe with a rich deep pur- 
ple, and roll it round the ovary, turning the purple portions over 
the globe, and touching the pistil. 

Double a piece of white wax the same length as before, and snip 
the edge with the point of the scissors about the twentieth part of 
an inch; this short fringe, being colored purple upon its edge, is 
rolled close to the base of the preceding piece. 

The ravs are formed from a double piece of white wax, and cut 
in fine shreds to pattern ; roll each between your finger and thumb, 
as for a stem, and when all are rolled, place them upright, and close 
to each other, upon a strip of white wax about two and a half 
inches long and half an inch deep, taking care that the rays are so 
placed that their points extend about three quarters of an inch 

above the strip. 

We now proceed to color the points with blue, leaving the centers 
white, and tinting the base with purple. 



WAX WORK. 245 

This done, bend the points backward, and arrange the rays round 
the portions already attached to the seed cup. 

Place one sheet of lemon-colored wax between two of white, and 
from this cut the petals. Color them on either side with light 
green ; curl upon the uncolored side ~ first with the head of the stick 
round the edges, and then once down the center. 

The calyx is cut from light green wax, and curled upon the 
glossy side. 

After placing the petals so as to form a double star, proceed to roll 
green wax round the stem formed of wire. 

The passion flower is a native of Brazil, where it at- 
tains a luxuriance of growth unknown to our temperate 
regions. The legend connectsd with it has given it an 
interest almost sacred, even wh^n viewed by other eyes 
than those of superstitious devotees. 

It is said that certain Jews, bewailing in Jerusalem 
the death of Christ, saw for the first time this flower, 
by some said to have sprung wherever drops of his 
blood had fallen, and, with the scene of his wondrous 
passion and death still fresh in their memory, gave to 
this beautiful blossom a symbolic meaning, indicative of 
his sufi'erings and the manner of his death. 

The anthers are supposed to represent the three nails 
used at the crucifixion. 

The rays represent the glory of our Lord. The purple 
21* 



246 WAX WORK. 

fringe, sometimes found with red spots upon it, is a type 
of the crown of thorns. 

The petals, ten in number, are the representatives 
of those apostles who were faithful to their heavenly- 
Master. 

The three sepals forming the calyx are emblematic 
of the Trinity. 

This poetical conception has caused the passion flower 
to be held, in esteem almost amounting to veneration 
in Catholic countries ; and the blossom is found en- 
twined in many cases with emblazoned inscriptions, and 
borders of old manuscripts of the sacred writings. 

Who does not love the passion flower ? And who, 
among God's children, does not recognize his glory in 
every flower that grows ? The anemone, the buttercup, 
the daisy, the violet, all lead our thoughts to him, and 
we are forced to cry out, " How wondrous are thy 
works, O God ! " 

Wax Fruit. — Some people use the poorer kinds of 
wax for fruit, thinking to economize ; but our experience 
has taught us that the best is the cheapest, and there- 
fore we get the best the market afl'ords. We melt the 
wax in small earthen or stone pitchers, putting a white 



WAX WORK. 247 

muslin bag of paint, say one third of a tea-spoonful, into 
the hot wax. For lemons, yellow apples, peaches, etc., 
we use yellow or lemon powdered chrome ; for oranges, 
orange chrome ; for green apples, cucumbers, green pears, 
etc., green chrome, varying the shades according to what 
we desire to make. 

The wax should never be heated to boiling, neither 
should it be made thick with the powdered paint. If 
a sufficiently dark color can not be obtained by the use 
of the little muslin bag, then add oil paint of the de- 
sired shade, from the tubes. AVe furnish Winsor and 
Newton's colors, — the best in use. 

For a rich plum, for example, we color the wax with 
drop red powdered, and add rich dark blue, or purple, 
from the tubs. 

Oil the inside of the mold by gently patting it with 
a bit of cotton batting dipped in lamp oil and tallow, 
as before mentioned. Place the mold so that you can 
see how to bring the locks together in an instant. 
Hold one half the mold firmly in your left hand ; with 
the right hand pour into it the melted wax from the pitch- 
er ; shut the empty half over it as quickly as possible, 
and holding the mold with both your hands, press the 



248 WAX WORK. 

two sides together, turn round and round and shake in 
every direction, until you can no longer hear the mo- 
tion of the wax ; then set the mold aside to cool. 
While you are waiting for that piece of fruit to cool, 
mold others in the same way. 

If one person is to work alone, and wait upon him- 
self, we advise him to make fruit of but one color, say 
yellow, as in peaches, yellow^ apples, lemons, yellow pears, 
crab apples, until he has acquired some skill, and is able 
to move quickly and manage many things. Before pour- 
ing the heated wax into the mold, try it by placing a 
thin bit on the surface of the melted wax : if it melts 
immediately it is too hot, and will spoil the mold ; if 
it floats on the surface, slowdy melting at the edges, it 
is all right. To have the fruit look well, the wax must 
be neither too hot nor too cold. 

In from ten to fifteen minutes the mold will feel cool 
to your hand, when you can open it and take out the 
fruit ; scrape away, in a slanting direction, the seam 
where the two parts of the mold united ; after which, 
rub it with a soft rag dipped in turpentine. 

The fruit being nicely clean, smooth, and without 
cracks, proceed to paint it with a bristle brush, of which 



WAX wop.K. 249 

you must have half a dozen, as you must always use 
the same brush for the same color. 

Take, with a small palette knife or spatula, out of the 
bottle, a minute portion of the color required ; if you 
have a peach, for instance, take carmine, dip the end of 
the brush stick into water, letting the end of the globule 
fall upon the palette near the powder, and mix well to- 
gether, until the tint be of the consistency of cream, and 
perfectly smooth. We must caution against dipping 
the body of the brush, or bristles, into water. The 
brushes used are held upright, and the color applied 
rapidly. 

If possible, have a natural peach, and try to imitate 
it in color. 

For the down of the peach, put some dry flour on the 
palms of your hands, roll the peach between your hands 
until every part be covered with the flour ; after which, 
the peach should be as little handled as possible. 

To have a variety in your peaches, paint some a little 
green or brown ; a brown spot now and then, has a 
good eff"ect. 

Oranges and lemons, eggs and plums, need no out- 
side painting. 



250 WAX WORK. 

Red apples are painted over the yellow wax, and can 
be nicely finished up with the camel's hair pencil; for 
the apple calyx, insert a bit of carbonated paper, tobacco, 
or tea leaf; for the stem, take a natural one. Finish 
your apple by rubbing it with the hand till it shines ; 
or, what is better, varnish it with fine copal varnish. 

Tomatoes are handsome, and, provided you get a nice 
mold, they are easily made. Various small fruits, as 
barberries, strawberries, etc., are formed with the fingers, 
and stuck with beads where necessary. Blackberries ^re 
handsome, if made with care. 

Grapes. — Many persons make purple grapes by put- 
ting a lump of wax on the end of a bent wire, and after- 
ward in melted rosin. They look well at a distance, if 
nicely powdered with blue paint ; but we prefer forming 
them of purple wax entirely, or dipping grape glasses 
into the purple, as we do into green wax for green 
grapes. 

We obtain various glass globes of the sizes of grapes, 
glue fine wire into each of them for a stalk, and plunge 
into green wax, prepared expressly for grapes, as atten- 
tion must be paid to their color. 

Have the wax very hot, and dip the glass globe as 



WAX WORK. 



251 



quickly as possible, holding uprightly to let the wax run 
under the grape. (Don't mind if the hot wax makes 
your fingers tingle ; you want a beautiful bunch of 
grapes ; " pay for a thing and have it ; " we have dipped 
two hundred without stopping.) Bunch the grapes, 
the small ones at the end ; wind the stalks, and finish 
up with tendrils and leaves. 

Having good molds, it will be easy for you to make 
wax dolls, birds, sheep, etc. 

Hold the mold in your left hand ; pour the melted 
wax into the aperture. As soon as it forms around the 
edges, pour back into the vessel what remains, and set 
the mold aside to cool. 

To color dolls, we stir a very little vermilion into the 
hot wax ; or, what is better still, tie it up in a bit of 
muslin, and paint the cheeks with the stifi* brush, in the 
same manner as rose leaves. 

We put hair on their heads, and insert enameled eyes 
or beads, according to the size of the doll. 

Before concluding our article on wax flowers, we 
would say that ladies need not be deterred from making 
them by the trouble of preparing the wax, since very 
nice sheet-wax, of all shades and colors, and of difierent 



252 WAX WORK. 

thicknesses, can be procured of the publishers of this 
book ; as also powdered paints and bottles of adhesive 
mixtures, to use with water-colors in the fine pencilings 
of such flowers as pansies, morning-glories, &c. These 
mixtures are superior to gum-arabic, inasmuch as they 
are less liable to crack tiian gum arable. 

The powdered paints, rubbed carefully on the surface 
of the wax with tlie fiuger, produce that soft and deli- 
cate texture so necessary to the perfection of wax 
flowers. And here it may be well to describe other 
methods of making green leaves, in which we have been 
very successful : one is, to soak green leaves, say rose- 
leaves, or those of a similar texture, in soap and water 
for a few hours ; shake off the water, and plunge the 
leaf directly into hot wax of the desired shade of green ; 
take out, and remove the coating of wax from both the 
upper and under side of the leaf; put the two together, 
with a wire between them, and you get a beautiful leaf. 
Another, less perfect, but easier method, is to make a 
mold of a natural leaf, either of plaster or by pressing 
together pieces of wax in a solid lump, and getting the 
impression of the veined side upon it ; then cut the wax- 
leaf, and take the impression from it or the plaster mold. 



fliister llorit. 



&c. 



22 



(253) 



PLASTER WORK. 




REAT care is necessary in regard to the 
consistency of the plaster, and the thorough 
greasing of the molds. 

Pro^dde yourself with the best ground 
Erench plaster, some good lamp or neat's 
foot oil, (if the former, add a very small 
bit of mutton tallow,) camel's hair pen- 
cil, penknife, rags, thick brown paper, small 
bowls, or a box of sand, and well water. 

Wipe such fruit as you have selected for molds 
very carefully, and remove the calyx and stems 
without marring the skin. If you wish to mold 
nuts, or fruit having a rough surface, (except 
oranges and lemons,) it is best to grease them in such a manner 
that all the surface may be perfectly smeared, without being greasy, 
^lake hollows in your sand, or, as we think preferable, lay 
cloths as smoothly as possible in the bowls to receive the plaster. 
You will see the advantage of the rags over the sand, when you 
finish up the molds, particularly if you wish them to look very 
neatly on the outside. 

Having every thing at hand, (and be sure that you do have 
every thing ready, for the plaster will not wait your motion,) 
begin to mLx your plaster ; at first, take but little, say a 
half pint of water or less ; into this filter your plaster until 
you get the consistency of batter for cakes; we usually mix 
with an iron spoon. Pour the plaster into the hollows in 

(255) 




256 PLASTER WORK. 



the sand, or into the bowls in which you have spread the 
cloth ; insert just one half of each piece of fruit thus : — 
let it remain until the plaster is 
hard ; then remove the fruit with 
the greatest care. If your plaster 
was properly mixed, you will have 
the exact impression of the fruit on the inside, and on raising 
from the cloth, a pretty smooth outside surface. Now trim the 
edges, cutting the plaster horizontally to the level of the impres- 
sion on the inner side of the mold ; the reason for this will be ob- 
vious when you see how beautifully the parts will fit together ; now 
make three or four grooves in the horizontal plane of the mold, 
thus : we make one oblong, another 
round, one large, another small, 
quite unlike for convenience sake ; 
this done, oil every groove and all 
the edges just formed by your knife. 

The mold being now thoroughly oiled with the brush, except, 
of course, the inside, reset the fruit ; pin the thick brown paper 
around the mold which contains it, so as to form a case, which 
must be, at least, two inches higher than the fruit as it stands in 
the mold. 

The vessel in which you have mixed the plaster, as well as the 
spoon, being perfectly cleaned, mix again ; this time pour the 
plaster into the paper case ; it will cover the fruit and run down 
the grooves forming nice locks ; when hard enough to remove 
the paper, take hold of the plaster with both hands, and pull 
the two parts asunder, remove the fruit which was entirely en- 
cased in the plaster, and you will have a nice mold with firm 
locks. If our directions are carefully followed, there will be little 
need of trimming the last part. 




PLASTER WORK. 257 

Should there be a feAv holes in your mold, mix up a little fresh 
plaster, and insert it with the point of your knife, smoothing and 
trimming the edges with your fingers. 

The molds being perfectly made, set them m a warm oven, 
or in an airy place, to dry ; they will not be hard enough for 
use for three or four weeks, when they will become hard as 
stone, and do many years' service. We have on hand some peach 
molds which we have used these ten years; and, for aught we 
know, they will be good for ten years to come. 

Do not expect to make the very best molds at the first attempt. 
The plaster hardens so quickly that you must have a Httle prac- 
tice in order to get things just right. Again, if you stir it too 
much or too little, it will in the first instance lose its strength, 
and in the second be lumpy. Be sure to have every thing perfectly 
cleaned at every mixing. 

We recommend Experience as the best of teachers ; she has 
treated us very kindly, and wiU be to you what she has ever 
been to others. 

Sometimes we make one mold in three or four pieces, of 
course mLxing fresh plaster, and making new locks for every 
additional piece. 

While we ad\ise you to mix but little plaster at a time, untU 
you can mLx it easily, we wish you to have several things in readi- 
ness, that you may use up all you mix. About a pint of the 
mixture would be sufficient for the half mold of a middling 
sized peach, an egg, and a nut; therefore it is best to have as 
many things in readiness, otherwise you must throw away your 
superabundant mixture. Now that we have told you hmo to 
make molds, we must lead your attention to the forms of the 
fruit, or whatever you intend for your model. 
22* 



258 PLASTER WORK 

If you wish to make a mold from an ear of com, in which 
the grains are irregular, it will be almost impossible for you to 
make it in two pieces. Try it, and you will see that you can not 
get the ear from the mold without breaking it; and this will 
teach you that unless the model can be easUy removed from the 
plaster, it is worthless, inasmuch as you could not take an object 
in wax safely from such a mold. (See engraving.) 

In order to obviate all difficulty, either choose such fruits, etc., 
as can be made in a mold of two parts, or make your mold 
in three or more parts, according to the fruit. 

Molds for small wax dolls can be made in two parts, the doll 
placed in the plaster in a lying position. 

Molds for dolls' heads of medium size may be made in two 
parts, and left open where the head is fastened on the body,. Cut 
the plaster off level on the open side. 

Molds for sheep, lambs, and dogs, (lying down,) also for human 
hands, may be made in the same way. If you wish to take the 
mold of a hand, be sure to oil it nicely (that is, to oil it without 
leaving oil standing on the surface) before laying on the plaster ; 
leave the opening at the wrist. 

When you have succeeded in making good molds, you can try 
your skill at plaster fruits and figures. As much of your suc- 
cess will depend upon the non-adhesion of the plaster to the 
model, remember the oil and talloAV. 

Mix the plaster as for molds ; pour into the mold as soon 
as it thickens on the sides ; pour out that which remains, if you 
wish your mold hollow. 

Should you wish to make plaster fruit, you must cut an open- 
ing in your mold, (while it is fresh, of course,) to admit the 
thin plaster being poured from the spout of the vessel in which 
it is mixed. 



MOSS WORK. 



259 



MOSS WORK. 




OLLECTING and arranging, in va- 
rious forms of grace and beauty, 
the delicate and many- colored 
mosses with which our fields and 
forests abound, has long been a 
favorite pastime with all lovers of 
the beautiful in nature. A fertile 
imagination and inventive mind 
will readily perceive the many ob- 
jects for which moss work is well 
adapted — vases neatly and tastefully covered with delicate mosses, 
arranged with an eye to the harmony of colors, are very appropri- 
ate for holding dried grasses; crosses, little towers, «* ancient and 
moss-grown," for watch stands ; frames for holding collections of 
leaves, grasses, or flowers, — indeed, it is needless to particularize. 
Beautiful landscapes can be made, closely resembling nature. 

Collect all the varieties of wood moss, beautiful bits of bark, 
and dried leaves, within your reach. ^lake a design, perhaps of 
a landscape, in which are ruins, bridges, rocks, etc. Paint a sky 
as in water colors, then cut and glue thin bits of bark and moss 
on the ruins ; moss on the rocks ; dried algse or forest leaves on 
the distant mountains, and the bright- colored and green mosses, of 
various hues, on the foreground. Such a landscape is calculated 
to draw out the ingenuitj^ of the pupil, and requires no little 
study, and when well done, is a very pleasant picture. Set in a 
deep frame. 



260 



SEA WEED. 



SEA WEED. 




HE sea shore is an inexhaustible 
sovirce of pleasirre and instruc- 
tion ; and to one who has a taste 
for the beautiful, or who loves to 
search out the wonders of the 
ocean, and trace in them the "foot- 
prints of the Creator," new ave- 
nues are constantly being opened 
for the acquisition of knowledge, 
and the means of rational and 
elevatmg pleasures. 
The great variety of sea weeds, their beauty and delicacy, and 
the graceful and attractive forms in which they can be arranged 
by skiiilul hands, have given to their collection and arrangement a 
deserved popularity among all frequenters of the sea shore ; and it 
is a pleasant sight to see groups of children and adults, wandering 
along the surf-Avorn beach, selecting the delicate fringes of moss ; 
and afterward, to see the fruit of their labors arranged in beautiful 
groupings, their bright colors well preserved, and the whole form- 
ing a picture pleasing to the eye and elevating to the taste. 

After having collected your sea weeds, throw them into fresh 
water ; cut a piece of paper relative to the size of the weed, oil the 
surface, and put it under the weed you are about to lay out ; 
spread with a camel's hair pencil, or pick apart with a pin ; we 
prefer the former. Great care, patience, and delicacy of handling 
are necessary in this process, for much of the beauty of the specimen 
depends upon preserving the minute thread-like fibers of the weed. 



SEA WEED. 261 

Trace out each thread, separating them all, and giving them such a 
position on the paper as will show the plant to the best advantage. 
Then gently raise the paper from the water, holding it in a slanting 
direction to let the water run off. Then put in press. A good 
way to make the press is to put three layers of blotting paper on 
a board, and upon this place your specimens ; over this, muslin or 
linen, and over that, paper again, and then another board. Dry the 
paper and cloths above if necessary to facilitate the process. 

Take your specimens from the papers and arrange on paper in 
bouquets, wreaths, or what you like, adjusting them according to 
the different colors, and thus obtain a pleasing variety ; secure the 
ends neatly with gum arable. It is well to brush over the coarser 
kinds of algse with spirits of turpentine, in which a very little gum 
mastic has been dissolved. 

Having arranged beautiful specimens of moss and sea weeds, we 
sometimes cut a very small basket through the middle, and sew it 
on the paper in front of our specimens ; then we fill our basket with 
various kinds of moss, which, standing out in rehef against that 
gummed on the paper, presents a basket of moss to the admiring 
eye of the lover of nature. 

" There 's beauty in the sea." 

A lady of our acquaintance, who has been in the habit of spend- 
ing much time in collecting sea-weeds, tells us that she filled no 
less than forty little baskets with moss, in one season, for presents 
to friends. AVe are so happy as to have one of them hanging 
in our parlor, which does great credit to the artist, so beautiful are 
the combination of colors and the delicacy and taste displayed in 
their arrangement. 



262 



HAIR WORK. 



HAIR WORK. 




O make hair flowers we need live 
hair, that is, hair from the head 
of a living person ; annealed 
wire, very fine ; pearl or gold 
beads, scissors, a pair of pinchers, 
a bit of whalebone, and knittmg 
needles of three sizes. Brush the 
hair as smoothly as possible, and 
tie in bunches. Double a piece 
of wire in the middle, and twist 
about two inches. 
Let us begin with a leaf. Take the twisted wire between the 
thumb and fore finger of the left hand for a handle, as it were ; 
fasten to this the ends of a thin strand of smooth hair : (it is well 
to draw it several times between the thumb and finger to make it 
glossy,) 

Bend the ends of the wire to the right and left ; then, holding 
the end of a knitting needle horizontally over the twist of the wire, 
pass the strand of hair around the needle, and fasten it by crossing 
the wires below to the right and left. So continue till you have 
woven sufficient for the leaf. Slip from the needle, and you have 
nice loops neatly fastened by a fine wire much resembling ghnp. 
Bend this mto the desired shape, twist the ends of the wire, and 
cover with silk braid as near the color of the hair as possible. 
The leaves may be made of difierent sizes, and varied by the size of 
the knittmg needle. 

To make daisies, asters, etc., turn this looped wire round and 
round to present a flat surface ; make firm by fine wire im.demeath. 



HAIR WORK. 263 

It is well to have a pattern. If you can not see hair flowers, take 
natural ones, and by fastening strands of hair to a wire, and binding 
with floss, endeavor to imitate Nature. 

With the pinchers you make your wire fast, and with the whale- 
bone you obtain the desired width of a petal by laying the hair over 
it. Thus, for a pansy, smooth a short strand of hair, fasten one end 
to a bit of wire, then pass the hair over the whalebone, wmding to 
the same wire, but lower dowTi ; this makes it firm, and enables you 
to give it what form you like, by bending the wire. Make five of 
these petals, and set them around a wire having a pearl bead on 
its end. 

Forget-me-not is a pretty little flower, and easy to make ; put 
a gold bead in the middle. 

Roses require much time and great care ; buds are easily made. 
Many persons moisten the hair with oil ; but our experience 
teaches us that the work is much more durable and neater when 
smoothed by the friction of the fingers. 

As it is often necessary to economize the hair as much as possible, 
it is well to state that as a general rule a piece of hair work is 
half the length of the hairs which make it. If you have but a 
scant pattern, use the short hairs first, not the shortest, but begin- 
ning with those perhaps of five inches in length, and then taking 
those which are longer. 

Practice in this art is of more value than precept. The artist 
will find the difficulties gradually disappear as the work is perse- 
vered in, and to study specimens of hair vork, now so common, 
wiU assist the learner in many points. 



264 



FEATHER FLOWERS. 



FEATHER FLOWERS. 




HOSE who are so fortunate as to 
have in their possession fine 
feathers can certainly make fine 
flowers. Have at hand gum in 
solution, French paper for wind- 
ing stems, and wire of different 
sizes. Draw the under side of 
the feather gently over the edge 
of your penknife to bend it in 
the required direction ; make a 
lump of bookbinder's thick paste or wax on the end of a wire for 
a stalk, and begin your flower by sticking the smallest sized feathers 
into it for a center ; place other feathers of the same kind, but 
larger in size, around in order. Choose green feathers for leaves 
and calyx, and pure white ones for japonicas and white roses. 
Twist the ends of the same on a wire, and make fast with gum, 
glue, paste, or other similar adhesive substance. Be careful to 
select feathers of the same kind for the same flower. Arrange in a 
vase, and cover to keep free from dust. In this, as in all kinds of 
fancy work, let taste and neatness govern the process. 

It will often be found necessary to color the feathers to give the 
desired variety of hues ; and this can easily be done by attending to 
the following directions : Put the feathers into hot water, then drain 
them ; rinse two or three times in clear cold water ; place them on 
a tray, over which a cloth has been spread, before a good fire ; as 
they dry, draw them gently into shape between the thumb and finger. 
To dye Feathers blue. — Into about three cents' worth of oil of 
vitriol mix as much of the best indigo in powder ; let it stand one 



FEATHER FLOWERS. 265 

or two days. "V\Tien -wanted for use, shake it well, and into a 
quart of boiling water put one table-spoonful of the liquid. Stir 
well, put the feathers in, and let them simmer a few minutes. 

Yellow. — Put a table- spoonfvd of the best turmeric into a quart 
of boiling water ; when well mixed, put in the feathers. More or 
less turmeric gives different shades. 

For orange, add a small quantity of soda to the preparation for 
yellow. 

Pink. — Three good pink saucers to a quart of boiling water, 
with a small quantity of cream of tartar. K a deep color is re- 
quired, use four saucers. Let the feathers remain in this dye sev- 
eral hours. 

Red. — Dissolve a tea-spoonful of cream of tartar in a quart of 
boiling water ; put in one tea-spoonful of prepared cochineal, and 
then a few drops of muriate of tin. This dye is expensive ; there- 
fore use the plumage of the bird ibis. 

Lilac. — About two tea-spoonfuls of cudbear in a quart of 
boiling water ; let it simmer a few minutes before you put in the 
feathers. A small quantity of cream of tartar turns the color from 
Hlac to amethyst. 

Bunches of orange blossoms can be made with good success in 
feathers ; the buds are to be made of starch and gum mixed ; the 
stamens of ground rice, colored with turmeric, into which the 
gummed ends of manilla grass have been dipped. 

The "untutored savages" of the Pacific Islands make beautiful 
feather flowers, rivaling the natviral ones in delicacy and beauty. 
Pinks, orange blossoms, and roses of exquisite workmanship are 
often brought from these "heathen lands" which would put to the 
blush our most accomplished artists. Old ostrich feathers can be 
made to look as well as new by holding over hot steam, then draw- 
ing each vane of the feather separately over a knife to curl it. 
23 



266 



CONE WORK. 



CONE WORK. 




ELECT good clear cones, and dis- 
sect some which have handsome, 
large scales, and brush them clean ; 
lay nice white putty, or a similar 
adhesive substance, smoothly on 
your frame ; set into this putty 
whole cones, large and small, in 
such figures as suit your taste, 
and fill up the entire gi'oundwork 
with the scales, lapping one neatly 
over the other. 
Cut oval and round frames for light pictures, from bookbinder's 
pasteboard, and cover with the scales in layers or rows. Scallop 
the edges with small whole cones, set in large cones surrounded 
by little ones equidistant, if the frame be broad, and fill in with 
the scales. When dry, take out those which are not firm, and 
replace. Add acorns ad libitum. Varnish the whole once or twice. 
If you wish something nice, go over every part with a fine brush, 
and leave no varnish standing in drops. 

Cones can be found by almost any one in an hour's walk through 
pine woods. Indeed, if one has a taste for the beautiful, and is 
quick in perception, it is impossible to ramble through woods and 
fields without finding many curiosities in the shape of mosses, 
grasses, cones, etc. 



SHELL WORK. 



26T 



SHELL WORK. 




HIS is very pretty for vases, frames, 
. boxes, etc. ^lany shell flowers, 
animals, birds, and the like, are 
brought here fi-om the Mediter- 
ranean. AVe have seen some that 
we would like to own ; but in 
general they have a stiff appear- 
ance. However, we will tell you 
how they are made. 

Assort your shells according to 
size and color — the more rice and other small shells you 
have, the better^ Melt white wax and glue together, two parts 
of the former and one of the latter. Have a clear idea of what 
you intend to do ; or, what is better, make a pattern before 
you begin to set your shells. If you will ornament a box, a rose 
in the center looks well. Take thin round shells, those most 
resembling rose leaves, of the smaller size, and dipping the lower 
ends in the hot wax mLxture, set them close together for the 
center of a rose ; place other similar shaped shells around in 
circles, the largest outward. Care must be taken to form the 
shells into perfect circles, and to take up wax enough to make 
them adhere to the cover. Shells of different form, say more 
oblong, can be used for leaves. After arranging such figures as 
you like with the shells you have, fill up the spaces with the very 
small ones. Rice shells are the prettiest, but they are costly. Some 
prefer sticking the shells into a puttied surface, which does very 
■well. Varmsh with a very little copal varnish, ming great care. 



268 



SHELL WORK. 



Animals are made of tliick pasteboard, or turned in wood, and 
covered with one kind of shell. 

Shell Flowers. — The basis of each large flower is a piece of 
thick round pasteboard. The shells for petals are sometimes 
tinged with water color, and the leaves made of green paper. Del- 
icate sprays are made by threading small shells on fine wire. 
Thus made, with half a dozen huge black berries of wax on the 
top, in a vase all covered with shells, it will pass for the imported 
article. 

Ornaments for the hair are made from rice shells, thus: File 
down the conical end of the shell, and clean out the opposite end 
with a pin ; pass a silver wire (a guitar string) through the filed 
end, bring it down and twist for a stalk. From fifteen to twenty 
pairs on one branch, neatly covered with white or green silk floss. 
Two or three such stalks of diflerent lengths are sufficient. 

Satin beads wired with a guitar string, and wound in pairs to 
form sprigs, with now and then a tendril, are beautiful for evening 
dress. 

In almost every family, enough shells, small and appropriate, can 
be found to make some ornamental article. Sea captains bring 
home valuable collections; and who among our readers has not 
some friends or acquaintances who «' go down to the sea in 



WILD TAMARIND SEED WORK. 



269 



WILD TAMARIND SEED WORK. 




HE wild tamarind seeds are brought 

into our market from the West 

C>\ Indies. They are about the size 

Aaj and color of apple seeds, but hard 



'.V=^^B' 



as stone. W^e tried various chem- 
ical solutions to soften them, but 
in vain ; finally, we soaked them 
in air- slaked lime some eight or 
ten hours, then wiped them -wdth 
_^^ ^ ^ a rag wet in sweet oil. After this 

process they were soft enough to admit of being pierced by a needle. 
Our lady friends used them, with gold and silver beads, for 
purses, bags, baskets, bracelets, ear-drops, etc. \Vhen dried they 
returned to their pristine hardness, and formed durable and useful 
ornaments. 

Seeds of Cucitmher and Musk Melon can be worked with steel beads 
so as to make handsome dress bags and table ornaments. They 
should be lined with silk appropriate to the beads ; for example, a 
rich green, cherry color, or black. 

A person of taste can make many very pretty things by arranging 
the seeds and varying the beads. Try it for bags, mats, catchalls, 
baskets, plates, and table ornaments. 
23* 



270 IMITATION PEARL WORK. 



BnTATIOX PEAEL WORK FOR EMBROIDERY. 

We do not think that a preparation of fish scales has ever 
been used in this country instead of the so much admii-ed pearl ; 
and so ue give it to our readers, kno%ving that they will like some- 
thing entirely new. 

Take the shining scales from a carp, or any other fish — the larger 
the scales, the better ; put them in strong salt water over night ; 
lay them on a linen cloth or smooth board ; wipe them carefully 
on both sides, and lay them between clean, strong paper, \mder a 
board, on which place a weight ; let them remain a day or two, 
until the scales are pressed dry and become hard. Draw some- 
thing, say an ivy leaf, on strong drawing paper ; cut it out, and 
lay it on each scale as a pattern by which to cut the scales with 
very fine scissors. Such a pattern, however, is superfluous to per- 
sons acquainted with drawing, who can cut leaves of that kind 
without one. Vein your scale leaves with a fine steel needle ; do 
it slowly, bearing on hard to give clearness: the leaves are now 
ready. 

Stretch a rich, dark- colored silk velvet tightly in an embroidery 
frame ; place the pattern, which you intend to copy, before you, 
and imitate it by sewing the scale leaves, one at a time, on the 
velvet, with fine gold thread, and the leaf stalks and tendrils em- 
broidered with the same. It is well to draw the thread through 
water before using it, to render it flexible. 

The beautiful eff'ect produced by this simple process fully repays 
one for the trouble. That manifold changes may be made accord- 
ing to the taste and ingenuity of the copyist, is evident to the 
reader. 



PAPER FLOWERS. 



2T1 



PAPER FLO^MERS. 




CCASIONALLY we see very hand- 
some paper flowers ; but t'nen they 
are made by persons of taste with 
great care, and from the best of 
French tissue paper. 

Dip a large camel's hair pencil 
in thin gum arable, and brush 
quickly over the whole surface of 
the paper from which you intend 
to cut your flower ; this fills the 
pores of the paper, and gives it a little stiffness. 

Cut roses, japonicas, etc., from paper patterns ; then paint with 
water color. Form the petal with your fingers and a pair of scis- 
sors. Cut a fringe of yellow paper for stamens. ^lake your leaves 
and calyx of green tissue paper, well sized with gum. Cover fine 
well-annealed wire with green paper for stalks, and fasten the parts 
of the flower together with gum. 

For a daisy, chrysanthemum, or aster, double the paper two or 
three times ; cut doA\-n two thirds ; roll the uncut side firmly round 
and rovmd the bent end of a piece of wire suitable for the stalk. 

Buds, pericarps, etc., are made either by stuffing with a bit of 
cotton, or winding up paper. 

Variegated pinks look well. Paint strips of paper in splashes 
here and there, as you see on the petal of the carnation — some very 
dark carmine, some merely light touches. Cut off" suitable width 
for petals, and wind around a paper center. Take natural flowers 
for models. 






(273) 




ins style of imitating the Chinese, Porcelain, 
Sevres, Japanese, and other kinds of vases, is 
I quite simple, and if the following directions 
are closely adhered to, no difficulty will present itself. 

Choose such a glass vase as will be adapted to the style you 
mean to imitate, which can be readily obtained, with the mate- 
rials described, of the publishers of this book. Witli fine-pointed 
scissors, cut the paper close to the figures you use, which may 
be flowers, birds, or Chinese figures of bright colors, which are 
imported in variety for this purpose. After you have cut out 
what you need, and have determined their arrangement, gum them 

(275) 



276 DIRECTIONS FOR POTICHOMANIE. 

on the face several times, until they are damped through and 
softened, letting them remain until the gum thickens a little; 
then press them closely to the glass till every spot adheres, for 
otherwise white spots will appear, which disfigure the work. 
Many use Antique varnish now instead of gum, appljdng as in 
the instructions for that style of work ; though more difficult, it 
is a far better method, both as it is likely to be more durable, 
and also more beautiful. "WTien the figures all adhere, and are 
dry, apply gently to the back, and on the edges of the work, a 
thin coat of gum. This will stop all varnish or paint from running 
between the figures and glass. Again, when it is dry, varnish 
over with Antique varnish ; or with Mastic or Outside varnish, 
only, if you use either of the latter, varnish only where you last 
gummed. After this is dry, paint the inside over with the ground 
color, which should be always a pale tint, greenish white, bluish 
white, sHght rose white, or, what contrasts better with the figures 
generally used, a pale yellow, or pine color slightly broMTi. 

Another way of making a beautiful style is, to take the common 
kind of potter's ware, and gum the figures on the outside instead 
of inside ; then gum the face and varnish, and afterward paint 
between the figures the ground you wish, with a small pencil, 
generally reddish brown, dark blue, etc. These colors may be 
mixed with oil, varnish, or enameled ; the best material readily 
obtained is fine zinc paint, tinted, and mixed with Outside varnish. 
The tmts may be made by mixing the Oriental colors spoken of in 
directions to that style. 

This art of ornamenting glass originated in France ; and from 
the easy method of gaining a beautiful effect, soon became a favor- 
ite source of employment for those who had leisure time, and a 
profitable art to those who made a business of it. By it, glass 
vases appear like richly painted porcelain, so much so, that, when 



DIRECTIONS FOR POTICHOMANIE. 277 

carefully done, it would deceive any but the initiated. The process 
is perfectly simple, and has one thing to recommend it strongly 
to those who can only work in ^^ snatches," as it can be put down 
and taken up at any moment without injury. By observing the 
following directions closely, no difficulty wiU be found by the 
most ordinary manipulator. 

1st. Select the pictures, either in sheets or otherwise ; go over the 
back with a strong coating of isinglass, taking care to cover every 
part. 

2d. ^Mien they are dry, select those wanted for use, and cut 
them out carefully, so as to have them in good shape and no paper 
seen. 

3d. "WTien you have as many as you want, arrange them on 
the table, in the order you wish to have them on the vase, num- 
bering them, if requisite, on the back to prevent any mistake 
when placing them on the vase. 

4th. See that the vase is perfectly clean, and free from spot 
or stain ; wet the front side of your pictures with gum tragacanth 
or gum arabic, and press them carefully -with the flat of the nail 
against the inner side of the vase. 

5th. ^Tien all is completed, and the vase submitted to a close 
scrutiny, to ascertain whether all the pictures keep their places, 
and whether there are any finger marks to remove, — if every thing 
is satisfactory, then mix your tint for grounding; it is better to 
mix up as much as will coat the entire over twice, so as to have it 
solid. 

6th. "WTien the color is thoroughly mixed, apply it with a soft 
camel's hair brush, (a one inch flat camel's hair is the best,) begin- 
ning at the bottom, and working carefully so as to cover every part 
equally. 

24 



278 DIRECTIONS FOR POTICHOMANIE. 

7th. Allow a day or two to intervene, then coat it over again, so 
as to make it perfectly solid. 

These we consider quite sufficient directions to work from. 

In the fourth direction, two gums are named. We prefer using 
gum tragacanth, and Avould strongly recommend the manipulator 
to be exceedingly careful in the process of sticking the figures on ; 
to be sure that the edges are securely fastened ; to look at them 
occasionally afterward, and if any little corner is found raised up, 
pertinaciously to insist upon its being fast down before leaving it. 
We dwell upon this, and make an important point of it, because 
so much depends upon it — whether your work is good and per- 
fect in shape, or blotched and deformed with paint, as the least 
rising up of the picture makes an entrance for the coating paint to 
flow in. 

The reason we recommend the coating of isinglass on the back 
of the picture is, some paper is not sufficiently compact to resist 
the effect of oil paint, but with a coating of isinglass the picture 
is sure to retain its beauty. The isinglass should be put on 
warm. A few of the best delicate tints for coating are as follows : 
Pearl — white with very little black; Buff — white lead or zinc 
white with a little deep chrome ; Pale Blue — white or zinc white 
with a little ultramarine ; Salmon — white or zinc white with a 
trifle mineral red ; Faicti — white or zinc white tinted with burnt 
sienna; Pea Gree?j, Emerald Green — white and a very little pale 
chrome ; Chocolate — Indian red and Vandyke brown ; Pink — 
white and pink madder ; Red Pink — white and a little vermilion. 
Any of these colors can be procured at paint shops, or of the pub- 
lishers of this book, in packages to suit, mixed in their usual way, 
with oil and turpentine, same as regular house painting, (inside 
nice Avork.) For pink, we would recommend tube paints of Win- 



TRANSPARENCIES, 279 

sor and Xewton, flake -white, and rose or pink madder, thinned 
with turpentine. 

Ground Glass Imitation. — A good imitation of ground glass 
can be made by coating the vase thinly over with white and dab- 
bing it with a delicate piece of chamois leather rolled up into a 
small ball. 

Imitation of Alabaster. — Alabaster can be imitated in the 
same way, only coating the vase a little thicker with the paint. 



TO MAKE TRANSPARENCIES. 

lAKE some prettily colored landscape, and cut a slit 
into the broad lights of it with a penknife ; put a white 
paper of medium thickness behind it, and interline with 
orange or rose-colored paper ; bind the three — that is, 
the landscape, the colored paper, and the paper which 
forms the back — together with some suitable color for 
a frame ; now separate the cut edges of your landscape 
by pressing them apart. Hang up in the -window, and when the 
sun shines through, the eflect is beautiful. Try it ; we are sure 
you will be pleased. 

An engra\'ing prepared as for Grecian painting is very pretty 
for a screen, or to hang in the window. Lamp shades may be 
made in this way, and many pretty designs will suggest them- 
selves ; bouquets, WTcaths, vines, rimning round the shade, etc. 
Also still more beautiful is the antique style, before painting. 





280 LEAF IMPRESSIONS. 



DIRECTIONS FOR TAKLNG LEAF IMPRESSIONS. 

OLD oiled paper in the smoke of a lamp, or of pitch, 
until it becomes coated with the smoke ; to this paper 
apply the leaf of which you wish an impression, having 
previously warmed it between your hands, that it may 
be phable ; place the lower surface of the leaf upon the 
blackened surface of the oiled paper, that the nTunerous 
veins that are so prominent on this side may receive 
from the paper a portion of the smoke ; lay a paper over the leaf, 
and then press it gently upon the smoked paper, with the fingers 
or with a small roller, (covered with woolen cloth, or some like 
soft material,) so that every part of the leaf may come in contact 
with the sooted oil paper, A coating of the smoke will adhere to 
the leaf. Then remove the leaf carefully, and place the blackened 
surface on a piece of white paper, not ruled, or m a book prepared 
for the purpose, covering the leaf with a clean slip of paper, and 
pressing upon it with the fingers or roller, as before. Thus may 
be obtained the impression of a leaf, showing the perfect outlines, 
together with an accurate exhibition of the veins which extend in 
every direction through it, more correctly than the finest drawing. 
And this process is so simple, and the materials so easily obtained, 
that any person, with a little practice to enable him to apply the 
right quantity of smoke to the oil paper and give the leaf a proper 
pressure, can prepare beautiful leaf impressions, such as a nat- 
iiraKst would be proud to possess. 

Specimens thus prepared can be neatly preserved in a book 
form, interleaving the impressions with tissue paper. 




BOTANICAL SPECIMENS. 281 



TO DRY BOTANICAL SPECIMENS FOR PRESERYA- 
TION. 

(HE plants you wish to preserve should be gathered when 
the weather is dry ; and after placing the ends in water, 
let them remain in a cool place till the next day. When 
about to be submitted to the process of dr^'ing, place 
each plant between several sheets of blotting paper, 
and iron it with a large smooth heater pretty strongly 
warmed, till all the moisture is dissipated. Colors may 
thus be fixed which otherwise become pale or nearly white. 

Some plants require more moderate heat than others, and herein 
consists the nicety of the experiment ; but I have generally found, 
that if the iron be not too hot, and is passed rapidly, yet care- 
fully, over the surface of the blotting paper, it answers the purpose 
equally well with plants of almost every variety of hue and thick- 
ness. In compound flowers, with those also of a stubborn and 
solid form, some little care and skill are required in cutting away 
the under part, by which means the profile and forms of the flow- 
ers will be more distinctly exhibited. This is especially neces- 
sary when the method employed by Major Velley is adopted, viz., 
to fix the flowers and fruit down securely -with gum upon the 
paper, previous to ironing, by which means they become almost 
incorporated with the surface. When this very delicate process is 
attempted, blotting paper should be laid under every part except- 
ing the blossoms, in order to prevent staining the white paper. 
Great care must be taken to keep preserved specimens in a dry 
place, and also to handle them gently ; and thus they can be kept 
a long time, affording a source of great pleasure. 
24* 



282 DECALCOMANIE. 



DECALCOMANIE 

Is another name for a style of decorating that has 
been in vogue an indefinite time, and comes under the 
head of transferring. 

It is almost superfluous to mention the variety of pur- 
poses to which Decalcomanie may be applied : it can be 
transferred upon every thing to which ornamentation is 
required ; and the variety of designs which are printed 
specially for it are so numerous, that some thing or other 
may be procured that will suit the taste of the most fas- 
tidious. 

A few of the articles that may be decorated can be 
mentioned, by way of showing what a variety this style 
will embrace : all kinds of crockery, china, porcelain, 
vases, glass, book-covers, folios, boxes of all kinds, 
&c. 

The method of transferring beautiful designs is so 
simple, and all the material requisite for the art so 
reasonable, that it brings it within the means of " tout le 
monde.^' 

Flat surfaces are more suitable for this style ; for, if 



DECALCOMANIE. 283 

the surface present a concave or convex, the design has 
to be cut, and the beauty of the subject may be endan- 
gered to accommodate the shape. 

Articles Requisite. — Cement same as for Diapha- 
nie, copal- varnish, designs, a duck-quill sable, and a flat 
camel's-hair brush. 

Directions. — Cut out your designs neatly with a 
small pair of scissors ; apply the cement by means of 
your small sable, and apply it to the article to be deco- 
rated ; place on your design, and press equally all over 
to exclude the air ; damp it a little, and keep pressing 
equally, so that the design may adhere firmly in every 
part ; when the cement is sufficiently dry, which will be 
soon, damp again with water a little more freely, and 
remove the paper. Be careful in manipulating this pro- 
cess : if you are not, you may remove some of the colored 
part with it. If such should occur, instantly replace it 
as well as you are able ; sometimes this can not be done. 
If such an accident should occur, and you possess a 
knowledge of Oriental painting, your panacea will be in 
that : you can retouch with those colors, and bring it 
back nearly to its original beauty ; in fact, a knowledge 
of Oriental painting and papier mache is an " open 



284 DECALCOMANIE. 

sesame " to almost all the styles treated by Prof. Day, 
such as painting on rice-paper, signs, magic-lanterns, 
glass, heraldic emblazonry, illuminatory diaphanie, imi- 
tation of ebony-inlaying, &c. 

In case you have no Oriental knowledge, match the 
colors as near as possible with water-color paints ; allow 
time to dry, and varnish with copal. 

Sometimes the cement becomes too thick for use. It 
may be restored to its proper flowing consistency by 
placing your bottle in a warm bed of sand, and applying 
it while warm. 

If you have to apply your design to a ground-work 
that is dark, it would be advisable to give your picture a 
coat of white, — Winsor and Newton's Chinese white ; 
the reason for which is, some parts of the pictures are 
semi-transparent, and if impasted on a dark ground 
they would lose part of their beauty ; but, by giving it a 
coat of white before transferring, it retains its brilliancy. 



DIAPHAKIE. 285 



DIAPHANIE. 

It is scarcely necessary to specify the purposes to 
which this invention may be applied. "Windows, lamp- 
shades, fire-screens, and, indeed, all other uses for which 
stained and ornamented glass is ordinarily employed, 
completely superseding the clumsy wire and other blinds. 
As a pleasing occupation for ladies and gentlemen, the 
work is one of the most useful and beautiful of the imi- 
tative arts. Cleanliness and the comparatively small 
cost of the materials used also recommend it to the 
attention of those who have leisure, either for amuse- 
ment or for the purpose of profit, as windows in 
churches, halls, conservatories, &c., may be decorated 
in any style, ancient or modern, and made to appear of 
great beauty and value. 

The unsightly view of walls, chimneys, &c., from 
staircase-windows, so frequently an annoyance to the 
eye in houses situated in towns, may be completely ex- 
cluded without materially interfering with the light, and 
that agreeable appearance given to an apartment which 
stained glass invariably imparts. 



288 DIAPHANIE. 

The designs used for this work are produced by new 
processes in lithography, and possess all the richness 
and fullness of color obtained by the most expensive art 
of glass-staining. 

The materials used in the work are as follows : 
Glass to decorate, prints or designs, a roller, a bottle of 
clearing-liquid, a bottle of washable varnish, a few 
brushes, and a bottle of vitreous cement. 

The roller is employed to press the paper upon the 
glass, to remove the bubbles of air : this can not be ac- 
complished without much difficulty by any other means, 
as the paper is apt to tear ; which, of course, spoils the 
picture. 

Observations. — In decorating a window, the effect 
as a whole is to be considered. For example, the posi- 
tion of a window : if at a distance or elevation from the 
eye, the design should be bold. Avoid, particularly if 
the panes be small, crowding each pane with little de- 
signs : the window-frames should not be made conspicu- 
ous by putting a border round each frame ; but the same 
grounding should be used, as a rule, and the border 
placed round the whole window, so as to make it appear 
one window, and not a number of little ones. Neither 



DIAPHANIE. 287 

should the clifFerent styles be mixed. Frequently parts of 
several sheets are used to form one window : they should 
be chosen with some regard to the harmony of colors. 

The smallness of the cost, and the greater ease with 
which the operations are performed, render it desirable 
to use separate glass, cut to the size of the window ; and, 
when finished, they may be fixed in the sash or frame 
with a few brads, a bead, or any similar contrivance. 
However, windows already fixed, if within reach, may 
be decorated without being removed, but it is more 
difficult. 

One advantage in using separate pieces of glass is, 
that in cleaning there is no liability of damage ; besides, 
they may be removed at pleasure. Common sheet-glass, 
flat, free from specks and bubbles, should be selected. 

Instructions. — Clean the glass, and lay it flat upon 
a folded cloth ; and, having obtained the necessary mate- 
rials, cut out the medallions or subjects (unless the 
paper is to be applied in one piece), and proceed to ar- 
range and fasten it in its appointed place in the manner 
hereinafter described. 

If there is to be a border, that is to be next attended 
to. This finished, damp the printed side of the ground- 



288 DIAPHANIE. 

ing-paper, and lay it over. Raise one end of the glass, 
and, looking through it, you will perceive the exact posi- 
tion the subject and border occupy ; trace round them 
carefully with a blacklead-penci!: remove the ground- 
ing, and cut it out, taking care to cut a trifle within the 
pencil-marks, so that the ground may overlap the subject 
a little. 

When this is done, thoroughly damp the uncolored 
side of the paper with sponge and cold water ; turn it 
over, and apply a generous coating of vitreous cement to 
the colored surface with a flat camel's-hair brush of 
moderate width, and at once apply the cemented side to 
the glass, pressing it down with the roller, commencing 
at the center, and gi'adually passing to the edges, which 
should cause the superfluity of cement to ooze out a lit- 
tle. This eflfectually removes all air-bubbles ; and, if the 
cement has been properly applied, no difficulty will 
occur. Keep the white side damp during this operation. 

See that your roller works well before you commence, 
or your work may be irrecoverably spoiled. It is advis- 
able to have some pieces of wetted paper laid over the 
design, between it and the roller, to prevent the cement 
getting on to the roller. "When the cement has become 



DIAPHANIE. 289 

hard and dry (about eighteen hours is sufficient), the 
paper can be removed by wetting it once more, and 
rubbing it with a piece of cloth, a sponge, or the hand. 
The whole of it may thus be removed, as the cement 
holds with considerable tenacity the colored surface on 
to the glass ; care must, however, be taken not to rub 
too hard or too much when the greater portion of the 
paper is removed, or a blemish may thereby be caused. 
Be careful to keep the work wet during this operation ; 
and, when finished, stand it by for a little time to dry ; 
then coat it over with clearing-liquid ; and, when this has 
become dry and hard, a coating of the washable varnish 
completes the work. Both the clearing-liquid and the 
varnish should be applied with flat cameFs-hair brushes. 
Remarks. — If the colors on the sheet are not suffi- 
ciently rich, they may be heightened ; or if there be any 
scratches or blemishes, they may be hidden by applying 
color of the same tint. If they are retouched witli 
water-color, it will be requisite to thinly coat over what 
you paint with varnish : if you retouch it with varnish- 
paint, same as is used for Oriental, there will be no occa- 
sion. The same holds good if you color over with lamp- 
black the joinings. 



290 DIAPHANIB. 

SECOND METHOD. 

Give the glass an even coating of the transfer-varnish 
or antique-varnish, — either will do ; and, as soon as this 
becomes sticky, damp the back of the prints with a 
sponge and cold water, and apply them to the glass, and 
press down well with the roller, as before directed. 
Should the adhesion be imperfect, through the varnish 
drying uneqally, it may be remedied by holding it a few 
minutes to the fire. When the varnish is quite dry, the 
back of the print should have one or two coatings of 
clearing-varnish ; if two, the first must be dry before the 
second is applied. Allow the work to remain a day or 
so, and apply a coating of copal- varnish. The joinings 
can be penciled over with lampblack. 

SHEETS OF PLAIN COLORS. 

Very pretty windows may be made with the sheets of 
plain colors, by cutting out the design with a sharp pen- 
knife, and applying it to the glass, afterwards entirely 
covering the window with a second color : thus, if blue 
has been first put upon the glass, the design cut out, and 
another sheet of crimson is covered over the whole, the 
design will be crimson, relieved by purple ; or, the glass 



CHARCOAL-DRAWING. 291 

may first be entirely covered, and any design in a second 
color cut out and applied. 

CHARCOAL-DRAWma. 

Provide yourself with some sticks of charcoal, black 
and Vv'hite crayon, stumps, chamois-leather, rag, and 
crayon-holder. 

FOR CHARCOAL-DRAWING TO IMITATE LITHOGRAPHY. 

Get a pine-wood frame and a sheet of crayon-paper. 
Ascertain the size of the lithograph that you intend to 
copy ; have the frame near the size ; cut the crayon-paper 
to match, and commence to sketch it in the folhwing man- 
ner : Put some strong flour-paste, such as bookbinders 
use, over the frame. Damp your crayon-paper with 
clean water, and paste your paper upon the frame : when 
dry it will be ready to work upon. Proceed in the fol- 
lowing way : draw in your subject with charcoal ; use 
the stump to blend, repeating the shades until you get 
what you want. As finer touches are required for 
foliage and branches, houses and figures, these have to 
be done with the fine point of your black chalk. A few 



292 CHARCOAL-DRAWING. 

li":hts can be added to advanta"fe with the white chalk. 
When all this is completed to your satisfaction, preserve 
the drawing by coating over the back of it with " pre- 
serving-varnish." When dry, cut out your drawing, and 
mount it upon a sheet of stiff white board. 

The receipt for the " preserving- varnish " is at the 
end of the book. 

CHARCOAL DRAWING, AS PRACTICED MORE GENERALLY 
BY ARTISTS. 

Procure tinted, crayon, or common brown paper ; 
cut the size that you wish to make your drawing ; pin it 
on the drawing-board, and commence your sketch with 
charcoal. If a mistake is made, it is easily dusted off 
with the rag. Get your forms and shades in with char- 
coal, and tone down by using the stumps, and occasion- 
ally with the fingers. Half-lights can be wiped out by 
means of the chamois, and high lights can be put in Avith 
white chalk. This style is exceedingly useful for artists 
and others, to get in their first ideas, as charcoal works 
so free and cifective. When you have worked in all 
you can, use a liquid fixatif: this can be obtained 
from the publishers of this book, with full directions 



CHARCOAL-DRAWING. 293 

how to use it. After the fixatif has been applied, it 
secures your drawing ; and, if desirable, you can re- 
touch with charcoal and chalk to good purpose. Always 
use the fixatif after retouching. This can be repeated 
indefinitely. 

The same process from beginning to end can be as 
readily drawn on canvas, the fixatif applied, and, when 
you have obtained all the effect you wish, you can com- 
mence oil-painting right over it. 

HINTS FOR DESIGNERS AND ILLUSTRATORS. 

To be a designer or an illustrator, artistically con- 
sidered, requires a natural talent for sketching objects 
with facility, a facile pencil, a versatile genius, a quick 
imagination, and ready invention. As we do not all 
possess these indispensable qualifications, we can not 
all be first-class illustrators or designers ; but, if we 
have a little to work upon, we may improve it, and 
perhaps, with perseverance and application, make our- 
selves quite acceptable in either capacity. 

For designers in prints, it is a profitable way to im- 
prove time by sketching single and separate flowers, and 



294 HINTS FOR DESIGNERS AND ILLUSTRATORS. 

leaves and buds, then arranging them in little groups, 
then re-arranging them, making one flower the principal 
in one group, and the others subservient to it ; and, in 
another group of the same flowers, making one of the 
others the principal. By doing this a number of times, 
and following it up for a number of days, you will ob- 
tain a facility of arranging that can not be obtained in 
any other way. 

Many pleasing designs are made with combinations of 
ovals, rounds, squares, triangles, and all the manifold 
shapes that angles and curves can be put to. 

In sketching, always strive to be neat and clear with 
outliaes, if you wish to be a successful designer. 

Some of the principal colors that designers use are 
the three chromes, Chinese white, lampblack, carmine, 
emerald-green, Prussian blue, vermilion, pink madder, 
burnt sienna, scarlet, and combinations that these colors 
will make. It will be observed that most of these 
enumerated are opaque colors ; but those that are not 
may be made so by adding white. 

To give facility for working with the brush, the 
draughtsman can not do better than study and practice 
the two pages of this book, 196 and 197. 



HINTS FOR DESIGNERS AND ILLUSTRATORS. 295 

For an illustrator, a much wider range of sketching is 
necessary ; and he can not do better than begin with sub- 
jects either from nature or acknowledged good copies. 
For instance, make a sketch of a chair, then put the 
model away, and sketch one from memory. When fin- 
ished, compare it with the original : it is a failure perhaps ; 
so tear it up, and try again and again, until you have 
every stave and point correct, and well in your memory. 
Sketch every thing else in the same way, individually 
and collectively, until you can do them readily. 

Figures and all kinds of quadrupeds should be treated 
precisely in the same way ; and the more difficult the 
subject, the more pains should be taken. 

This copying from good models, and then drawing the 
same from memory until fairly accomplished, is a won- 
derful stepping-stone to a successful illustrator. 

A perusal of the article on charcoal-drawing as prac- 
ticed by artists would be advantageous, and could be 
followed out in developing the first ideas of subjects, and 
bringing them into form and order. 



296 LINN^OGRAPHY. 



LINN^OGRAPHY. 



This is an easy method of procuring outlines soft and 
artistic, and can not fail to be correct, as they are copied 
from natural leaves ; and, if it is manipulated neatly, the 
result bears a near resemblance to stippling. We will ♦ive 
an illustration with a fern-leaf. Procure a fine-shaped 
fern, and place it flat upon a sheet of white drawing- 
board ; pin it down with little baby-pins, in order that it 
may lie close to the paper in every part ; then prepare a 
weak shade of Indian-ink in a saucer or plate. Dip 
your brush in it, charge it pretty well, and commence 
rubbing it on the comb, backwards and forwards, while 
holding it over your leaf. The effect will be, that the ink 
will be forced through the teeth of the comb, and descend 
upon the paper in small round dots. Proceed in tl 
way until you have acquired the depth of shade y 
want ; then remove the pins and fern-leaf, and you will 
■find a pleasing outline of the fern, shaded neatly. You 
can repeat this with other leaves, and form them into a 
group. Flowers may likewise be done in the same way. 
Flowers and larger leaves will require to be finished with 



lis 
ou 



LINN^OGRAPHY. 297 

the sable by velning the leaves, and penciling in the 
stamens and anthers to the flowers. Colors may be used 
for variety, taking the place of the Indian-ink, and 
tinted board in place of white. If the paper be prepared 
with isinglass, in the same way as for bronzing (see page 
198), you can proceed to linnaeograph your leaves in the 
same way as spoken of, and afterwards stain them with 
varnish-color, according to directions for Oriental paint- 
ing. 

The same method may be applied to silk, satin, and 
cloth. If either of these articles are used, they must be 
first stretched upon a flat board, and fastened with nails ; 
then coated over with isinglass : afterwards proceed in 
the same way as upon any other surface. 

The linnceographic process may be used to advantage 
in forming a background for water-color flowers, in 
doing which the flowers and leaves must be correctly 
drawn on tracing-paper, and neatly cut out with penknife 
or scissors ; then arrange your flowers and leaves upon 
your drawing-paper, and weight them down with little 
weights instead of pins. Be careful to have the edges 
close down ; then begin the linnaeographing. If done 
carefully, it has a very similar effect to stippling, and is 



298 PERMANENT FLOWER-PAINTING. 

done in a few minutes in comparison to the wearying 
time taken to stipple. You can now remove the paper, 
and proceed to paint the flowers and leaves in the ordi- 
nary way. Articles requisite for plain linna30graphy : 

■» 
saucer, comb, tooth-brush, and crow-quill sable. 

Letters, horses, cows, dogs, sheep, figures, monogi'ams, 

&c., may be linnaeographed if cut out neatly and 

fastened well upon the paper. 

PERMANENT FLOWER-PAINTING. 

This style of pamting is suitable for folding-screens, 
cuspadores, &c. 

Procure a tube of flake- white, a bottle of copal var- 
nish, palette, and knife, and the following colors in pow- 
der : carmine, Prussian blue, chrome-yellow, black, burnt 
sienna, and Yandyke-brown, a few sable brushes of vari- 
ous sizes, and a few camel's-hair brushes. 

Sketch your design upon what you are going to deco- 
rate, with chalk, any color that will show ; then prepare 
some of the flake- white upon your palette, by mixing 
sufficient copal varnish with it to make it flow readily. 
Coat over your flowers, birds, leaves, and stems with 



PERMANENT FLOWER-PAINTING. 299 

this twice or three times. Allow it to dry a short time ; 
then, with one of your camel's-hair brushes, dry, char- 
ging the brush with the powder-color you wish, and shade 
on carefully the tint required. For pink flowers, use car- 
mine ; blue flowers, the Prussian blue ; for purple flowers, 
purple powder made with carmine and a little blue. Yel- 
low flowers, with chrome-yellow, afterwards with a little 
sienna. The leaves shade with green powders, made 
with chrome-yellow and blue, in various proportions, to 
suit the tint, introducing a little sienna or Vandyke-brown, 
if brown tints are required. For white flowers, use black 
and a little chrome with it : the stems shade green after- 
wards, adding a little Vandyke-brown. 

If you require any of the flowers of a much stronger 
color, it will be necessary to add a little poppy-oil besides 
the varnish. This will give it additional stickiness, and 
make it receive more color. 

Be careful to coat over the flowers and leaves evenly, 
or the powder-colors, when applied, will go on streaky. 
After the powder is all done, if you wish to vein the 
leaves, get a little varnish, and mix some Vandyke-brown 
with it and pencil them in ; likewise the stamens of flow- 
ers that require them ; the anthers do with chrome yel- 
low. 



300 TO PAINT FLOWERS ON TINTED PAPER. 



TO PAIXT FLOWERS ON TINTED PAPER. 

First paint all over your flowers with Chinese white. 
"When dry, repeat coating until you get them as white as 
London board. Some flowers require to be painted more 
solid with the white than others : such as yellow, scarlet, 
blue, and purple flowers. After you have your flowers 
and buds satisfactorily done, you can then proceed in the 
regular way, as written for flower-painting, only more 
care must be observed in laying the washes on, and not 
attempt to retouch before it is quite dry, or the white 
will wash up and mix with your colors, and the conse- 
quence will be that your flowers in the high lights will 
not be so brilliant as they otherwise would be. 

The green leaves paint on the tinted paper, in the 
same manner as if you were painting on white paper (see 
article on Green Leaves) ; and if you want a bright green, 
or part of a leaf bright, pencil on some Chinese white, 
and stain over it the tint required. 



TREATMENT OP AUTUMN LEAVES. 301 



TREATMENT OF AUTUMN LEAVES. 

The painting of autumn leaves has most deservedly 
grown into public favor, owing to the artistic exertions 
of several in this line of art, who have succeeded in 
placing admirable specimens of brilliant leaf-beauty be- 
fore the patrons of art ; and whether they are introduced 
in single sprays, or harmonized in groups, never fail to 
attract attention, as the leaves are capable of being made 
into very handsome groups, owing to their varied tints, 
which are second to none but the flowers to which they 
are related. 

The treatment of the leaves is varied to suit the 
coloring of each. For yellow leaves, such as are often 
seen among the sumach and maple, use gallstone ; and 
while moist wash in a delicate tint of pink madder. For 
brilliant red leaves, paint over twice with gallstone 
and gamboge, and afterwards with pure carmine, the 
general tint required. If there are any dark parts on the 
leaf, wash in Vandyke-brown while the carmine is moist. 
For leaves that are partially turned, and have a variety 
of colors in one leaf get the tints mixed upon the palette, 



302 TREATMENT OF AUTUMN LEAVES. 

all ready to apply, and wash them in with different 
brushes, first coating the leaf over with clean water, and 
putting some blotting-paper upon it, in order to absorb 
the superfluous moisture. Float on your color as near 
the real shade as you can mix it, using gallstone, Indian 
yellow, chrome-yellow, gamboge, raw sienna; yellow 
ocher, for yellows, adding a little Prussian blue to either 
of the yellows to make green. For red parts, use car- 
mine and pink-madder. For brown leaves, such as 
are sometimes seen on beech-trees, use gamboge, burnt 
sienna, and burnt umber. For some oak-leaves that 
have a peculiar yellow tinge, use yellow-ocher, and float 
on a little raw-umber while the yellow-ocher is moist. 

All autumnal leaves washed in, in this general man- 
ner, require to have a little more finish, either in broad 
touches, or stippling, or lined. 

The veins can be painted in with a long crow-quill 
sable, in Chinese white, and stained if requisite. One 
side of the vein should be relieved with a stroke of dark 
color. Some of the veins are penciled in with crimson- 
lake and Vandyke-brown, equal parts. 



GREEN LEAVES IN WATER-COLORS. 303 



TREATMENT OF GREEN LEAVES IN 
WATER-COLORS. 

Leaves are painted In various ways, and, if painted 
well, add very much to the beauty of the flowers. 
General treatment is to coat over the shadows and 
shades with neutral tint or Indian-ink, and then wash 
over with various-tinted greens. A few directions for 
treatment with different colors will greatly assist those 
who are fond of flower-painting. 

For dark leaves, coat over the shades with neutras 
pretty strong ; when dry, wash over all the leaf with 
green, composed of indigo and raw sienna ; when dry, 
retouch with broad touches the shadows and couvoln- 
tions. 

For some kinds of rose-leaves, use emerald-green and 
carmine for the shades, and wash over with emerald- 
green and pale chrome-yellow ; finish with small touches 
to increase the depth in some parts. 

For small, delicate leaves, and new leaves, gamboge 
and Prussian blue. Let the gamboge predominate ; and 
in some leaves a faint trace of carmine may be pen- 



304 GREEN LEAVES IN WATER-COLORS. 

cilled in. The majority of green leaves may be treated 
with gamboge and Prussian blue, in numberless tints, 
occasionally washing in a little carmine in some in- 
stances, and burnt sienna in others. All leaves, after 
the broad washes are in, can be worked over, sometimes 
to great advantage, by a little stippling or a few lines. 
The amount of finish in this way depends upon the skill 
of the artist. If you find you are not improving it 
after working over for a considerable time, leave oflT, 
and come again to it some future time, fresh, and deter- 
mined to succeed. 

Sap-green makes a very good wash for some leaves, 
strengthened Avith a little burnt sienna and Prussian blue 
in the shades. 

The veins of green leaves, if dark, can be pencilled in 
with Vandyke-brown, adding a little indigo for the 
darker places. If the veins are lighter than the leaf, 
pencil them in with Chinese white, and stain them with 
color. For drops of water, the under part must be 
darker, and the light may be put in with white, or 
scraped up with the point of a penknife. 

The lights on a cluster of anthers in a flower are often 
made with good effect with the point of a penknife. 



Ilhmitiation, &l 



(305) 




ILLUMINATING. 

]N ancient times, our forefathers had a 
way of introducing the first letter of sen- 
tences to their readers, dressed and dec- 
orated with brilliant colors; and some- 
times, by way of emphasizing a whole sentence, every 
letter would be illumined, so as to attract more attention. 
The style of letters usually selected for illumining are 
the old English. Any others can be used ; but these, 
and such as these, are better adapted to show the style. 
The letters should be neatly drawn, and skeletoned out 
with gold-brouze ; then filled in with one of the bright- 
est colors. For variety, some of the letters may be out- 
lined with silver or lampblack, always using the crow- 
quill sable for outlining. When silver or gold shell is 
used, it can be made to look almost as bright as leaf- 
gold or silver by rubbing with an agate burnisher. 

It is requisite to be provided with the following arti- 
cles : gold shell, silver shell, and the following cakes of 
water-colors: vermilion, cobalt-blue, carmine, lamp- 

307 



305 ILLUMINATING. 

black, emerald-green, gamboge, coustant white ; two 
sable brushes, — one a crow-quill with hairs about five- 
eighths of an inch long, the other an ordinary duck-quill 
size, — and a tool called an agate burnisher. But, in 
the absence of this, any small rounded stone or piece of 
metal will do, so that it is quite clean. 

Observations. — The crow-quill brush is best suited 
for outlining the letters : being a little longer, it carries 
the paint better. If the letters are large, the duck size 
will be better for filling in ; and, in doing which, you 
can alternate the colors according to taste. If you de- 
sire a purple, you can make a very beautiful one by 
adding carmine to cobalt-blue ; and if you desire a scar- 
let, add a little carmine to gamboge. Wiien the letters 
are finished, you can vary the appearance a little more 
by shading them very delicately with black, weakened 
down to a neutral tint. The emerald-green and vermil- 
ion make very rich contrasts in one letter. Blue and 
scarlet in others, and gamboge and purple, and blue, pur- 
ple, and emerald, for more sombre ones. 



SOEEEKTO-WOOD CUTTING. 



SORRENTO-WOOD CUTTINGS-. 

Choose a simple pattern to commence with ; make a 
very exact drawing of it on paper, of such fabric as can 
be cut through easily. Paste the paper on the wood in- 
tended to be cut; then saw and cut through paper and 
,vood on the lines of the drawing with small, sharp in- 
struments. If desirable, some of the pieces cut out 
may be painted and re-iuserted. 

When in Italy, we saw splendid specimens of this 
work ; among them the wedding-gift of the city of Turin 
to Prince Untberto, a sort of box, valued at five thousand 
francs. It was a complicated piece of work, and exqui- 
sitely wrought. When shut, it was only a handsome box ; 
but it opened into jewel and sewing boxes, a writing- 
desk, toilet-table, music-stand, drawers, and various 
other conveniences, the whole inlaid and bordered with 
tiny bits of colored wood. 



310 HERALDIC EMBLAZONING. 



HERALDIC EMBLAZONING-. 

We do not intend to enter into the origin of heraldry, 
or give any elaborate description of armorial bearings, 
or attempt to trace out any family crests or coats of 
arms, but merely to give the modus operandi of fol- 
lowing out the emblazonry of any crest or coat of arms 
that may be found in heraldic books ; and to facilitate 
this object, it is requisite to be acquainted with the lead- 
ing terms us^d. The shield is divided into the following 
parts, A, B, C. The chief sub-divided into A, the dex- 
ter or right hand ; B, the middle chief point ; C, the 
sinister, or left-hand chief point ; D, the collar, or honor 
point ; E, the heart, or fess point ; F, the nombril, or 
navel point ; and G, H, I, the base, subdivided into G, 
the dexter base point ; H, the middle base point ; and I, 
the sinister base point. (See Fig. 1.) 

The shield, with its points and parts thus described, is 
distinguished by certain armorial colors called tinctures, 
separated by division-lines. The shape of the shield is 
optional : the whole space within the bounding-lines of 
the shield is called tlie field. The tinctures used in 
heraldry are metals, colors, and furs. 



HERALDIC EMBLAZONING. 



311 




Fig. 6. 



Fig. 7. 



Fig. 8. 



Fig. 9. 



Fig. 10. 



Gold, as in Fig. 2, bv dots ; Fig. 3, plain, for argent ; Fig. 4, 
azure, horizontal lines ; Fig. 5, gules, by perpendicular lines ; sable, 
Fig. 6, by cross-lines, horizontal and perpendicular; Fig. 7, vert, 
lines from dexter chief to sinister base ; Fig. 8, piirpure, lines from 
sinister chief to dexter base; Fig. 9, tenne, transverse lines from the 
dexter chief to sinister base, and from sinister chief to dexter base; 
Fig. 10, sanguine, lines horizontal, crossed by other lines from dexter 
chief to sinister base. 



DOVETAILED. 



w^/^y^/ 



INDENTED. 



Ay\A^ innsij 



EMBATTLED. 




wAvr. 



INYECKED. 



312 



HERALDIC EMBLAZONING. 



Names abridged. 




In English. 


Or, 


Or, 


Gold. 


At., 


Argent, 


Silver. 


Az., 


Azure, 


Blue. 


Gu., 


Gules, 


Vermilion. 


Sa., 


Sable, 


Black. 


Vert, 


Vert, 


Green. 


Purp., 


Pur pure, 


Purple. 


Ten., 


Tenne, 


Tan. 


Sang., 


Sanguine, 


Indian Red, 



The two principal furs used in heraldry are ermine 
and vair. 

Emblazonry is represented in engravings, that are not 
colored, by the following marks : gold is represented 
by dots ; silver, by the shield being plain ; blue, by 
horizontal lines ; red, by perpendicular lines ; sable, by 
cross-lines, horizontal and perpendicular ; green, by lines 
from the dexter chief to the sinister base ; purple, by 
lines from the sinister chief to the dexter base ; tan, by 
transverse lines from the dexter chief to the sinister base, 
and from the sinister chief to the dexter base ; Indian 
red, by lines horizontal, crossed by other lines from the 
dexter chief to the sinister base. (See Figs. 2 to 10.) 



HERALDIC EMBLAZONING. 3 13 

ATTITUDES OR POSITIONS OF ANIMALS. 

When a lion or other beast of prey stands upright, 
with one ear and one eye seen, he is termed rampant ; 
when walking forward, with one eye and one ear seen, 
passant ; when sitting, sejant ; when lying down, cou- 
chant. If in any of these positions the animal looks 
full face, so that both eyes and ears may be seen, the 
word guardant is annexed to passant, rampant, sejant, or 
couchaut, as the case may be ; and if he look back, the 
word reguardant. Animals of the deer kind have their 
positions otherwise blazoned. Thus, when looking full- 
faced, they are said to be at gaze ; when standing, sta- 
tant; when walking, tripping; when leaping forward, 
springing ; when running, courant ; and when at rest on 
the ground, lodged. 

Parts that are specified in the directions to be gold 
are mentioned as Or. Such parts can be done two ways ; 
viz., with gold-leaf or gold-bronze : the latter is most 
simple, and easier to do. Get gold-bronze, mix it with a 
little dissolved gum-arabic, and coat over all the parts 
marked Or, and, when thoroughly dry, rub it hard with 
the a^ate burnisher, same as mentioned in directions for 



314 HERALDIC EMBLAZONING. 

illuminating. If leaf-gold is required, you dissolve 
isinglass in hot water : make it pretty strong, and pencil 
over the parts (while the Isinglass is warm) that are to 
be gold ; allow it to dry ; then pencil over the same with 
gold-size, and proceed in the same way as directions for 
gilding. (See page 206.) The parts marked Ar., argent, 
silver, may be done with white bronze mixed with a 
little gum, and, when dry, rubbed with the agate ; or the 
part can be left white, if the coat-of-arms is being painted 
on white paper ; and if tinted paper, a few coatings of 
constant white will answer the purpose. For vert, use 
emerald-green ; for purpure, use carmine and a little 
cobalt-blue ; for gules, use vermilion ; for sable, use 
lampblack ; for tenne, use yellow ochre and a little 
burnt sienna ; for sanguine, use Indian-red ; for azure, 
use cobalt-blue. 

In finishing, gold and bronze are shaded with burnt 
sienna ; and in the darker shades add a little Vandyke- 
brown. All the other colors may be enriched by a little 
shading : for vermilion, use carmine ; for purple, use 
purple, and add very little black, to darken it a trifle ; for 
green, gamboge and a little black ; for tenne and san- 
guine, use Vandyke-brown ; for white, use the black, 



HERALDIC EMBLAZONING. 315 

diluted down with water to a very pale shade ; for 
azure, use cobalt, and add a little black. 

You will observe that what has already been treated 
upon has all been painted with water-colors : if you re- 
quire something more permanent and durable, we would 
recommend the varnish-colors, and refer you to the arti- 
cles on Oriental painting and papier-mache. The color- 
ing will be exactly the same as already laid down for 
water-color emblazoning ; but the treatment of colors 
will be different. The mixing of paints will be the same 
as mentioned on page 171 ; and the coating of the white 
■will be the same as pursued for flowers, page 194. This 
treatment can be painted upon any dark ground. 

If on tinted paper, it will be requisite to prepare the 
paper with isinglass, exactly in the same manner as men- 
tioned on page 198 for bronzing. 

MATERIALS REQUISITE FOR EMBLAZONING. 

Leaf-gold, gold-bronze, Avhite bronze ; cake water-col- 
ors, — burnt sienna, Yandyke-brown, carmine, cobalt- 
blue, vermilion, emerald -green, lampblack, gamboge, 
yellow ochre, constant white, Indian-red ; agate bur- 
nisher, crow-quill and duck-quill sable brushes. 



316 CUTTING OUT PAPER ORNAMENTS. 



HOW TO CONVERT BROKEN CAKE-COLORS 
INTO MOIST COLORS. 

Put the broken color into a small cup, and cover witli 
water. Let it remain until the color is dissolved or suffi- 
ciently softened ; then get it out and place it upon a porce- 
lain palette or clean plate. Add about one-third of its 
original bulk of honey to it ; mix it well with a small 
palette-knife, and put it in one of the porcelain pans : 
when the water moisture has evaporated, it is ready for 
use. 

DIRECTIONS FOR CUTTING OUT PAPER 
ORNAMENTS. 

Procure several tints of tissue-paper of delicate colors, 
such as pink, blue, green, yellow, and white. Decide 
upon the size and shape you wish your subject, whether 
round, square, or oval. 

For example : We will suppose it to be a circle the size 
of an ordinary plate. Draw out your circle with com- 
passess, or from your plate, upon the tissue-paper. 



CUTTING OUT PAPER ORNAMENTS. 317 

Double it over and over four times, in such a way as to 
make your paper assume the shape of a cone one-eighth 
of a circle. Now cut a piece of white letter-paper 
exactly the same size as one-eighth of a circle, and upon 
it draw a single design with pen and ink, observing that 
each figure should be separate. When complete, place it 
carefully inside the first division of your folded paper. 
You can now" trace the pattern with lead-pencil on the 
tissue-paper. Tliat being done, remove your original 
pattern, and commence cutting out the parts you have 
marked with a pair of embroidery scissors. When you 
have cut them all out, unfold your paper, and you will 
have your pattern repeated eight times ; and, when done 
neatly, it has a pleasing appearance. If it is not all you 
desire, try again. A few trials will make you perfect. 

The paper ornament, when finished, may be used as a 
mat-stand, scent-bottle, or pincushion, or to place upon 
a dessert plate. 

This style of paper-cutting may be used for many pur- 
poses that your own ingenuity may suggest. 



318 DIRECTIONS FOR BROXZE STENCILLING. 



DIRECTIONS FOR BRONZE STENCILLING. 

Procure papers of three or four different kiuds of 
bronzes, — white, gold, copper, and salmon. A bottle of 
gold-size, a flat camel's-hair brush, penknife, and a flat 
piece of tin six or eight inches square. Make a rubber 
of a bit of soft leather, with soft cotton inside. Tie it 
with thread, so as to keep it in shape. 

Draw the subject you want on thin, strong writing- 
paper. Whether flowers, figures, houses, letters, or 
scroll ornament, place the paper with your drawing on 
the tin, and commence cutting out with the point of your 
penknife, leaving a little band, now and then, to hold 
your design together. With a little practice this can be 
done very neatly. Your design being ready, coat over 
any article you intend to decorate. 

For an example, we will take a little fancy table that 
has been varnished or coated with oil-paint. Wash it 
well, so as to free it entirely from grease. When quite 
dry, coat it over evenly with gold-size with the flat 
brush. Allow it to dry about twenty minutes ; then get 
all your bronze papers open ; place your design on the 



ENGRAVINGS OR PRINTS UPON GLASS. 319 

part coated with gold-size. Charge your leather rubber 
well with the desired bronze, and rub gently the bronze 
on to the stencil. Great care is requisite in rubbing on 
the bronze, or you may break some of the delicate bands 
that hold together your design. The bronze readily 
adheres to the sticky property of the gold-size. 

If desirable, you can stain with transparent color what 
you have stencilled. In that case you must allow it to 
dry a few days, and use the same colors as directed in 
Oriental painting. 

FOR USING ORDINARY ENGRAVINGS OR 
PRINTS UPON GLASS. 

The engravings or prints used for this purpose should 
be on paper that contains little or no size ; uiid those, 
answer best that are strongly printed. 

Lay the print flat, and damp with sponge and water 
the plain or unprinted side. Apply a generous coating 
of transfer-varnish on the glass. Place on tJie print 
face to the glass ; then press with the roller, as before 
directed in the article on diaphanie ; and, having satisfied 
yourself that no air-bubbles remain between the face of 



320 IMITATION OF INLAYING WITH EBONY. 

the priDt and the glass, lay it at some distance from the 
fire to dry. 

Damp the back of the print again with water, and 
commence rubbing off the superfluous paper. This must 
be done with care, or the face of the print will be 
injured. 

When you have removed sufficient of the paper, and 
allowed the moisture to dry, apply with the camel's-hair 
brush the clearing-varnish. 

If you wish, you can stain some of the parts with 
varnish-color, as used in oriental. Afterwards varnish 
all over with copal-varnish. 

IMITATION OF INLAYING WITH EBONY. 

Procure any article that is made with holly-wood or 
any other light-colored Avood. Trace neatly with lead- 
pencil any design you wish, and proceed to outline the 
same with your crow-quill sable. Afterwards fill in all 
the interstices with lamp-black. 

The designs for this style may be as simple or as 
elaborate as for any style of decorating ; and any one 
who has a steady hand for outlining can accomplish it. 



IMITATION OF INLAYING WITH EBONY. 321 

"We will suppose, for example, that you only want a 
border composed of ivy-leaves. Sketch in your pattern 
with your crow-quill brush charged with black. Vein 
the leaves, and leave all the connecting-stems white. 
Fill in to the width of your border with black. 

The same design may be reversed, which is much 
easier to do for a border. In this case, pencil in your 
leaves with black, leaving the veins white ; the connect- 
ing-stems do with black. Make your black smooth and 
solid, even if you have to go over two or three times. 

Chinese designs, with figures, buildings, birds, trees, 
flowers, &c., look very well in this style, on small tables, 
folio, and book-covers ; indeed, this style can be applied 
to advantage on any article that is made in light-colored 
Avood. I once saw a complete toilet-set ornamented ia 
this style, chairs and bed included. 

The articles required are a pan of Winsor and New- 
ton's lamp-black ; two sable brushes, — one a crow-quill 
sable, with the hairs five-eighths of an inch long ; the 
other a duck or goose-quill, according to the spaces you 
have to fill in. 

After finishing your design, if the article is one that 
will be handled much, it is better to give it a coat or two 



322 DIRECTIONS FOR CLEANING BRUSHES. 

of copal-varnish. If two, allow the first coat to dr^ a 
couple of days before applying the second. 

The reason for varnishing is, the lamp-black is water- 
color ; and, if any moisture gets upon it, it would smear 
and spoil the effect of your work. 

If you are an oriental-painter, and have the requisites 
for that style, you can use your lamp-black mixed with 
varnish, in place of using water-color. 

To those who have painted papier-mache, and are 
familiar with varnishing, if they wish they may put an 
extra finish upon their work by giving it two coats of 
varnish as before directed, and then following the direc- 
tions for polishing as mentioned on page 202. 

DIRECTIONS FOR CLEANING BRUSHES. 

Always leave your brushes clean. For water-color 
brushes, Indian-ink, and sepia, wash them in clean 
water. 

Brushes that are used in alcoholic varnishes, such as 
spirit-sandarac, cabinet, varnish for pearling, preserving- 
varnish, and Grecian varnish, should be washed in 
alcohol. 



IMITATION OF GROUND GLASS. 323 

All brushes used in oil painting, oriental and papier- 
mache, and turpentine varnishes, such as transfer-var- 
nish, antique varnish, mastic, and copal, should be 
washed in turpentine, and afterwards with soap and warm 
water. Attention to this, and your brushes will always 
be in working order, and will last a long time ; but if 
neglected, and the color or varnish is allowed to remain 
in, they soon spoil and get ruined. 

IMITATION OF GROUND GLASS. 

Take one part of flake-white ; add two parts of sugar 
of lead ; mix with equal parts of oil and turpentine. 
The color must be used thin, and applied with a paint- 
ing-brush of moderate size. Then, with a painter's 
duster or badger, clean and free from dust. Commence 
gently dabbing the glass with the ends of the luiir until 
your work acquires uniformity of appearance. This will 
wear a considerable time, and it may be waslied with 
weak soap and water if necessary ; but, should you 
require to repaint it, the first may be removed with very 
little labor by applying with a sponge a solution of pot- 
ash. 



324 GRECIAN VARNISH. 

Another method, more simple : Get some putty ; pre- 
pare it in a round ball, and dab over your glass evenly ; 
let it dry a couple of days, then repeat it. If evenly 
done, it looks well, and answers every purpose for which 
ground glass is used. If you should require to remove 
it, it may be done with very little trouble, by applying, 
wdth a piece of sponge or cotton, oil of tartar, or solutiou 
of potash. 

TRANSFER-VARNISH. 

To six ounces of fir-balsam add three ounces of recti- 
fied spirits of turpentine. Shake well together, and it is 
ready for use. 

GRECIAN VARNISH. 

Take three ounces of fir-balsam, two ounces of ninety- 
five per cent alcohol, and one ounce of rectified spirits of 
turpentine. Shake well together ; strain if requisite, and 
it is ready for use. 



SEALING WAX. 



325 



SEALING WAX TO IMITATE CORAL. 






,'>": ::- 




ELT sealing wax of the de- 
sired color in first proof al- 
( cohol. Spread thickly over 
!^ a pasteboard, basket, plate, 
^^ or small waiter. Stir rice, 
sago, and small bits of tap- 



ioca, into the vessel of dis- 
solved sealing-wax ; spread 
the same over the basket, etc. ; dry thoroughly. This 
is pretty for card receivers. 

Sealing-wax Painting. — Into twelve large-mouthed 
bottles, containing about half a gill each, put as many 
colors and shades of sealing wax. Pour over alcohol, 
best quality, sufficient to dissolve the wax. Paint 
flowers, birds, etc., with the same to imitate enameled 
painting. A friend of ours, who had much skill in 
painting, received $60 for a small table painted in 
this way. 



326 PRESERVING-VARNISH. 

CLEAR VARNISH SUITABLE FOR ENGRAV- 
INGS, &c. 

To six ounces of fir-balsam add twelve ounces of rec- 
tified spirits of turpentine. Shake well together ; strain 
if requisite, and it is ready for use. 



PRESERVING-VARNISH. 

To half an ounce of shellac add one pint of ninety-five 
per cent alcohol. Let it remain two days, occasionally 
shaking it. Pour off from the sediment, and it is ready 
for use. 






(327) 



THE AQUARIUM. 




giving some simple directions for 
making aquaria, we believe that we 
are performing an acceptable service to 
our readers ; for within comparatively 
a short time the aquarium has become 
a popular source of entertainment and in- 
struction, and by means of it a fresh impetus 
has been given to the study of the won- 
ders of the ocean depths. No more attractive 
object can be found, than a well-stocked aquarium, with 
its living curiosities of animal and vegetable life, nor one 
so continually changing in its character — ever varying, 
ever new. We give a few simple directions to assist the 
reader, although the subject is not strictly within the 
scope of our volume. Bat we have frequently been in- 
quired of relative to the mode of constructing an aqua- 
rium, and think our readers will be gratified to find a 
few simple rules within their reach. 

The first requisite is a tank, which can be of any 

(329) 



330 THE AQUARIUM. 

shape to suit the maker's fancy and his facilities for 
construction. The square or oblong forms are generally- 
preferred, being easier of manufacture, although octagons, 
or other angular forms, are readily made. Great care 
must be taken that the tank is perfectly water-tight ; and 
this is one of the chief difficulties to be encountered. Of 
course, simple tanks can be made of glass tumblers, china 
bowls, etc., but we are speaking of those on a more 
extensive scale. The tank is, in few words, a water-tight 
box with glass sides and a slate or marble bottom. A 
cabinet maker, or any ingenious person, can easily make 
one by constructing the skeleton of a box, or the frame 
of a box, and fitting glass sides into solid grooves in the 
frame. Also have a glass slab for a cover, raising it a little 
from the top of the tank by placing bits of cork upon 
the edges, in order that air may pass over the water. The 
dimensions can be decided according to taste or convenience. 
The following are found to be very available sizes : — 

18 inches long, 13 inches wide, and 13 inches high. 

30 «' ♦« 18 " " " 18 " 

48 " " 24 " •' " 24 " ♦* 

Having completed the tank, the next, and perhaps 
more difficult step, is to fit it up, or " stock it ; " and 



THE AQUARIUM. 331 

here is a field for the display of taste and beauty. Of 
course, this process depends upon whether the tank is for 
a salt or fresh water aquarium — the tank itself being 
the same for both. In a small aquarium it is not best 
to fill up the tank with rock-work, as all the space thus 
occupied diminishes to that extent the room for the ani- 
mal and vegetable life. Before fitting up the tank, it 
should be well soaked for two or three days, to remove 
any loose particles and all scent and foul matter from the 
cement used in fastening the glass sides, as any such im- 
purities will destroy all the animal life contained in the 
tank. Cover the bottom of the tank evenly to the depth 
of one or two inches (the depth is not essential) with 
coarse sand, pebbles, small shells, etc., washed clean. In 
this layer the aquatic animals will delight to amuse them- 
selves. Next, place stones and rocks of difi'erent sizes in 
the tank, piling or adjusting them so that open spaces 
will be left between the stones, corresponding to the 
caverns and hiding places in the beds of brooks and on 
the bottom of the ocean. Allow one piece of rock to 
project above the surface of the water, so that such of the 
animals as desire can crawl up and breathe atmospheric 
ak. The tank should be filled perhaps two thirds full of 



832 THE AQUARIUM. 

water, and the hight marked on the side of the tank. 
As the water evaporates, fill up with fresh water to this 
mark. If the aquarium is for salt water, the filling up 
to compensate for evaporation should be done with, fresh 
water, (not sea water,) as the salt remains in the tank 
after the evaporation. The water should be occasionally 
supplied with fresh air, by means of a syringe, and changed 
from time to time during the first week, or until the plants 
and animals seem to thrive naturally. 

The aquarium should be stocked with the vegetable 
life Jlrst, and the plants should be suffered to remain a 
week or more before any animals are introduced, as some 
plants may die, and dead leaves and sticks may accumu- 
late. These should be removed as soon as seen. 

In a marine aquarium, branches of coral make a very 
pretty ornament to the interior arrangement. An excur- 
sion on the sea shore will supply a variety of plants, etc., 
with which to stock the tank. Make your exploring 
expedition when the tide is out, supplied with a basket, 
hammer, chisel, etc. Turn over large stones, and under- 
neath them you will generally find excellent specimens. 
Search in the fissures of the rocks, pools, and basins, 
and find marine plants. If possible, do not detach them 



THE AQUARIUM. 333 

from the rock, but cut away the piece to which they are 
attached, and bring the whole away ; the plant is more 
likely to live in this way. If it is a delicate plant, place 
it in a jar and cover it with water, or it will soon die by 
exposure. In these excursions, you will find mollusca, 
univalves, bivalves, barnacles, etc. Sea anemones wdll be 
found adhering to the rocks ; star-fish, curious specimens 
of the crab, and others, will be found under loose stones 
at the lowest tide level. 

The knowledge of a practical naturalist would be of 
great assistance in fitting up the aquarium, as his prac- 
ticed eye would detect many beautiful specimens which 
might wholly escape the notice of those unskilled in nat- 
ural history. The water for a marine aquarium should 
of course be from the sea. 

The fitting up of a fresh water aquarium is easily done. 
We subjoin the names of a few plants, simply to specify 
those most desirable : — 

Forget-me-not, Yellow "Water Lily, 

Ferns, Water Cress, 

Water Violet, Tape Grass, 

Common Rushes, Sweet Flag, 

Common Dock, Golden Club, 

Duck "Weed, Water Lobelia, 
White Water Lily, 
25 



334 THE AQUARIUM. 

and many others which are familiar to the reader Most 
of these are common to our brooks and ponds. In placin^r 
plants in the tank which require fixedness of roots, it is 
well first to inclose the roots in a ball of wet clay. 

Pond snails are easily procured, and are an important 
accession, as they consume decayed or decaying vegeta- 
tion, and in fact act as natural scavengers. Care must be 
exercised to have neither too strong nor too feeble a light. 
The fresh water muscle, and all the genera and species 
which abound in ponds and creeks, are suitable for the 
aquarium, and the same may be said of the fishes. The 
spawn of the mollusca furnishes some food for the fish ; 
but they should be fed daily, not with bread, but with 
red worms cut up small, and occasionally v.ith millet 
seeds. Pioces of dried beef, in minute fragments, will 
answer as a substitute for worms. All impurities should 
be removed from the tank, to prevent an unpleasant 
odor, and to preserve the life of the animals. 

From the hints thus given enough can be gleaned to 
enable any one to attempt to make an aqr.arium with a 
good prospect of success. An examination of one well 
arranged would be of great advantage in giving correct 
ideas of the construction and arrangrement. 



A FERN-CASE FOR A SHORT PURSE. 335 

A FERN-CASE FOE, A SHORT PURSE. 

The base, which can be made by a carpenter if re- 
quired, must consist of a plain board for a bottom, three 
inches longer and wider than the case is to be. To the 
bottom attach ogee-moulding, the large side downwards, 
three iuches wide, in the top of which there should be a 
groove for the reception of the glass. 

Get five panes of glass : three of them, say, twelve 
iuches by eighteen ; and two, twelve inches by twelve, 
or in those proportions. Then set the lower edges of 
two of the larger panes, and of the two smaller ones 
into the grooves of the mouldings, and paste them 
together (using gum-tragacanth dissolved in water to 
the consisteucy of flour-puste; over the joined edges 
with silk galloon. Cover all the echjes with the galloon, 
lay the remaining pane over the top, and your case is 
ready, with the exception of a zinc pan, which any tin- 
man will make for you, and which is to be of a size to 
fit into the base. Its depth should be of the width of 
your moulding, — say three inches. 

This pan is to be filled half full of pieces of charcoal, 
of, say, an inch to an inch and a half square, with some 
smaller pieces mixed in, but without dust. 



336 A FERN-CASE FOR A SHORT PURSE. 

The plants, which will grow better if transplanted in 
their native earth, can be placed upon the charcoal. 
Then moisten, but do not wet the soil. 

It will require little or no care, and will not need to 
be watered for months, as the moisture arising in the 
case is sufBcient. 

For the plants, a trip into the woods for mosses, ferns, 
ground-laurel, little pine-trees, and checkerberry, squaw- 
berrj, and cranberry vines to enliven the picture, and 
such other plants as your taste may suggest, will be a 
pleasant way of spending an afternoon. 

The arrangement of the plants in the case must be 
left to the taste of the maker ; but it is a irood rule to 
place the tallest plants in the centre. 




hallauMttS |ttni{ts 



(337) 




TRACING PAPER. 

|ET a sheet of fine tissue paper, and rub it all over thinly 
with clarified linseed oil, when it will be quite trans- 
parent ; hang it up to dry ; it takes some time to dry, 
but it must be allowed to dry thoroughly before using 
it, or it may spoil the picture or engraving you trace 
from. With this kind of tracing paper, being trans- 
parent, you have merely to place it over pictures or 

engravings, and with a lead pencil mark over your drawing with 

a steady hand. 

SPIRIT SAXDARAC VARNISH. 

Six ounces of pulverized sandarac, two ounces of pulverized 
shellac, four ounces of pulverized resin, four of turpentine, 
thirty-two ounces of alcohol ; let the vessel you make it in be 
surrounded with wann water, gradually made hot ; when all the 
gums are dissolved, strain, and in a few days it will be ready for 
use. Good for varnishing any thing that is wanted to dry quickly. 



TRANSFER VARNISH. 

To six ounces of fir balsam add twelve of rectified spirits of tur- 
pentine ; shake well together ; strain if requisite, and it is ready for 
use. Good for transferring engravings, and holds the ink firmlv ; 
is sometimes used for varnishing maps, engi-avings, etc. 

(339) 



840 MISCELLANEOUS RECEIPTS. 



MASTIC VAUNISH. 



Dissolve (without heat) six ounces of bruised mastic in twelve 
ounces of rectified spirits of turpentine ; when dissolved, strain it 
into another bottle, cork it, and place it where the sun will strike. 
After a time there will be a precipitate ; then put it in another bot- 
tle clear. This is a good varnish for maps and engravings. 

Another. — Six ounces of 95 per cent, alcohol ; six ounces of 
mastic; fourteen of turpentine. Likewise good for engravings, 
maps, etc. 

HOW TO MAKE TRANSFER PAPER. 

Take any opaque color, and mix it with a very weak solution of 
gum water. The opaque colors best for this purpose are Indian red, 
yellow ocher, chrome yellow, and white, ^^^len mixed, coat it over 
thin drawing paper, with a flat brush ; when dry, it is ready for 
use. It is very serviceable to transfer your sketch made on the 
tracing paper : for oil pictures, for instance, when you have made 
your sketch on the transparent tracing paper, place your transfer 
paper, the color side to face the canvas, fit on your trace, and mark 
all your drawing with a bone tracer, or with the point of your 
sharpened pencil stick, when a very legible outline will be trans- 
ferred to the canvas, of whatever color your transfer paper is. 
Of course you will choose a color that will show ; chrome or 
yellow ocher shows quite sufficiently on light-colored canvas. 
After removing your paper, it is well to mark over on your can- 
vas \\'ith lead pencil. 

In making the transfer paper, be careful not to put too much gum 
in, or the color will not leave so freely as is requisite for tracing. 



MISCELLANEOUS RECEIPTS. 841 



ANTIQUE VARNISH. 

This receipt has never before been given, although large sums have 
repeatedlg been offered for the secret. All other receipts are worth- 
less, and no other preparation will stand the test of time, as this 
has done. 

Take one ounce of pure Venice turpentine ; mix well with two 
ounces of pure spirits of turpentine ; warm in a large bottle. In 
another bottle put four ounces of best fir balsam, (it must be pure,) 
Avith two ounces of 95 per cent, alcohol ; shake well each bottle 
frequently for six hours or more, then mix both preparations in the 
large bottle. The whole should stand several days before usmg, in 
a warm place. 

CABINET VARNISH. 

To one gallon of alcohol add six ounces of gum sandarac, three 
ounces of gum mastic, one half ounce turpentine varnish ; put all 
in a tin can, and in a warm place, occasionally shaking. Twelve 
days or so will dissolve the gums. Strain, and it is ready for 
use. This varnish is good for any sort of wood work, violins, etc. 

TURPENTINE VARNISH. 

To one gallon of oil of turpentine add five pounds of powdered 
resin ; boil for thirty minutes ; strain it ; when cold, it is fit for use. 

PAPIER MACHE VARNISH FOR PEARLING. 

Take one quart of the spirit sandarac varnish, mix in three 
ounces of lampblack, and one ounce of Prussian blue ; blend them 
together, and it is ready for use. 



^42 MISCELLANEOUS RECEIPTS. 



TO TARNISH COLORED ENGRAVINGS, CHARTS, 
MAPS, ETC. 

Make a frame stiff and strong, similar to those used for canvas 
in oil painting, except it better be secured at the corners. Then 
procure cotton cloth two inches larger than the frame all round; 
this paste well on one side with strong binder's paste; also paste 
the picture or map, which should lay a few minutes to become 
moist throughout, and place the pasted sides together, (the cloth 
and paper,) and rub with a bone folder, commencing at the middle, 
out to the corners, that it may not wrinkle. The assistance of a 
second person would be desirable to hold up the corners until 
you are prepared to smooth as directed. Before this is dry, tack 
with lace tacks to the frame evenly ; when it dries it will become 
very tight and smooth. 

After the whole is thoroughly dry, take a piece of isinglass, say 
three inches square, break in small pieces and pour on hot water, 
about a small cup full, and keep it hot till the isinglass is all dis- 
solved, and while the solution is warm, with a flat camel's hair 
brush, coat the face of your picture evenly, avoiding as far as pos- 
sible touching a second time (particularly if it is colored) till the 
first is dry. Be sure that every part has re?cived a portion of the 
size. When dry varnish with Outside, or Mastic varnish. 

RECEIPT FOR MAKING GOLD SIZE. 

Take one pint of boiled oil, and three quarters of a pound of 
litharge ; boil them together for three hours, occasionally stirring 
it up ; when cold, let it settle for a few days, pour off the clear 
liquid, and it is ready for use. 



MISCELLANEOUS RECEIPTS. S43 



TO STRETCH ENGRAVINGS FOR FRAMING. 

Prepare them as already directed. Pictures much soiled may 
be washed in clean water, and with blotting or other porous 
paper the superfluous water absorbs the dirt ; they may be then 
stretched, and be made to look as smooth and fresh as new. 



TO CLEANSE CABINET WORK. 

An excellent method is, in the first place, to saturate the surface 
with pure olive oil, and then apply a solution made by dissolving 
gum arabic in boiling alcohol. This will give to the furniture a 
most brilliant appearance. 

Another mode is to dissolve a poiuid and a half of potash in a 
gallon of hot water ; then add a pound of virgin wax, and after 
boiling it for half an hour, allow it to cool, and the wax will rise 
to the surface. Put the wax into a mortar, and work it with a 
marble pestle, adding soft water until it becomes of the consistency 
of soft paste. Lay this on the furniture, and rub it carefully, when 
dry, with a woolen rag, and a beautiful brilliancy is soon ob- 
tained. 

SPATTER WORK. 

Select the pattern of leaves, ferns, or other design, according to 
fancy, and affix to the surface of the material which is used, by 
means of fine needles thickly placed, and closely securing every 
part of the pattern, so that the edges leave no space between the 
pattern and the material. Mix India-ink with water in a thin 
paste. Dip a tooth-brush in the mixture, and, holding the satu- 
rated brush over the work, quickly draw the teeth of a line comb 
over the brush, repeating the operation until the surface is com- 



3U MISCELLANEOUS RECEIPTS. 

pletely spattered as desired. "When thoroughly dry, remove the 
pattern ; and it will be found in relief tastefully set off by the 
spattering. 

Very coarse spatter is made by using the brush without drawing 
a comb across. 

All kinds of holly-wood ornaments, tidies, velvet cushions, etc., 
may be ornamented by spatter work.